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1. classification

1.1. 1. Crystal stability. Like the fats many emulsifiers are made from, emulsifiers have polymorphic properties that allow them to exist in different crystal forms -- ( (alpha), ( (beta) and (( (beta prime). Like fats, most emulsifiers will crystallize in the ( form initially, then transform to one of the ( forms. But, certain emulsifiers are "(-tending" and are stable in the ( form. This group includes acetic acid esters, lactic acid esters, polyglycerol esters, propylene glycol esters and sorbitan esters.

1.2. 2. HLB. An often-cited way to classify emulsifiers is by their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, or HLB. Ranging from zero to 20, this scale indicates an emulsifier's relative overall attraction to either oil or water. A low HLB indicates a strongly lipophilic emulsifier, while a high HLB indicates one that is strongly hydrophilic. In the past, the HLB was one of the primary criteria for selecting an emulsifier. Its effectiveness is, unfortunately, pretty much limited to simpler food systems. Still, it can be very important in applications that require basic emulsification, such as salad dressings. It also is useful as a general indicator of the emulsifier's solubility.

1.3. 3. Ionic charge. When dispersed in an aqueous medium, certain emulsifiers will exhibit a negative (anionic) charge. These ionic emulsifiers -- including the stearoyl lactylates and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides -- have a carboxylic acid group on the molecule's ester ("head")

2. function

2.1. Starch complexing is possibly the most widespread application of emulsifiers. Starch granules contain both amylose, a linear molecule; and amylopectin, a branched molecule. When starch is dispersed in water and heated, these granules absorb water and swell. The fully swollen granules are said to be gelatinized. At this stage, the starch molecules have either built maximum viscosity or have associated to form a gel. Either way, once gelatinization is complete and heat is removed, the starch molecules gradually associate more closely with one another, forcing the absorbed water out until the starch recrystallizes. This is called retrogradation. When bread and other yeast-raised products are made, the starch from wheat flour is gelatinized. Although the exact mechanism is still being studied, the retrogradation of this starch is believed to play a role in staling. Emulsifiers can retard this retrogradation and maintain softness in these products. When gelatinized, the linear amylose molecule forms a helical structure. The inside of this helix has mild lipophilic tendencies. Emulsifiers complex with the amylose by "docking" their lipophilic tails inside the helix. This physically inhibits the amylose molecule from retrograding. Different emulsifiers complex starch to different degrees, depending on the molecule's shape. "The fatty acid must either be fully saturated or a trans oleic fatty acid," says Wyatt. "If it's in the cis form or a polyunsaturate, there will be an optical bend on the fatty acid and it won't fit into the helix. The molecule must be straight." The twin tails of lecithin phospholipids also prevent them from being effective starch complexors. They can, however, be modified by selectively cleaving one of the fatty acids with a phospholipase enzyme. "The increase in dispersibility and its ability to complex with starch are enzyme-modified lecithin's main advantages," says Lance Colbert, manager of lecithin technical services, ADM Lecithin, Decatur, IL. "It's used in some applications for water dispersibility, but mainly in the bakery industry to complex starch.

2.2. Foam stabilization/aeration. Air is an important part of many baked goods and dairy products. Although emulsifiers improve the way air is incorporated and retained in both product categories, the mechanism by which they do so is very different. To provide the correct finished texture in a cake, air must be mixed into the cake batter. Air cells in the batter are subsequently expanded by carbon dioxide gas from the leavening system to form the structure of the finished cake. Aeration must be efficient because over-mixing the batter can make the cake tough. Emulsifiers increase the whipping rate of cake batters by reducing the surface tension of their aqueous phase. This allows mixer blades to more easily break the surface and incorporate air. Although the mechanism is less understood, emulsifiers also help to increase overall cake volume and to make the cell structure more even. In ice cream and whipped toppings, emulsifiers stabilize the foam by actually de-stabilizing the product's emulsion. In these products, naturally occurring dairy proteins stabilize the emulsion. The proteins do so by binding themselves through hydrophobic interactions to the triglycerides on the surface of fat globules. This prevents the fat from agglomerating into clusters. These clusters, however, are necessary for building foam because they coat the surface of air cells and stabilize them. The emulsifiers that can destabilize this emulsion and promote agglomeration are the (-tending emulsifiers. According to Wyatt, the theory behind this functionality is that the (-tending emulsifiers displace the protein from the fat globule surface to the aqueous phase. This increases the liquid cream's viscosity and allows the fat globules to agglomerate. The increased viscosity promotes aeration, while the agglomerates stabilize the air cells once the air is incorporated. Other emulsifiers, such as monoglycerides, also can help improve aeration in these products. Keep in mind, though, that ionic emulsifiers will not. The mechanism behind this is the same one that makes ionic emulsifiers so effective at maintaining emulsions -- that is, the dispersed fat globules will have a negatively charged surface that repels other globules and prevents agglomeration. At the same time, an even dispersion of smaller fat globules is desirable in coffee whiteners. Here, agglomeration would be a detriment to a smooth creamy mouthfeel. This is why ionic emulsifiers like sodium stearoyl lactylate are so common in these products.

2.2.1. Cake batter is a mobile foam, while baked cakes are rigid foams. Emulsifiers coat the air cells in foams to provide foam stabilization. In addition, emulsifiers increase the amount of air that can be whipped into the batter by decreasing the surface tension of the aqueous phase, thereby increasing the whipping rate of batters. Carbon dioxide gas, a leavener, does not spontaneously form bubbles in cake batters. By adding emulsifiers, more uniform air cells are generated and these act as nucleation sites for the dissolved gas. The result is a cake with improved grain, more even cell structure, and increased volume. Monoglycerides, lactic acid esters, propylene glycol esters, polyglycerol esters, and polysorbates are emulsifiers that provide aeration and foam stabilization.

2.3. Protein interaction. Although the destabilizing of protein in aerated dairy products just discussed is technically a protein interaction, this section will focus on interactions with gluten protein in baked products. When water is added to flour and mixed to make a dough, gluten forms an elastic network which gives structure to the dough and helps contain leavening gasses. If this network is weak, however, leavening gasses may be lost and the finished product's volume will not be optimal. Two reasons account for weak network formation. First, not all gluten is of the same quality; some has a weaker potential to associate into this network. Even with the same flour from the same supplier, the potential may vary from year to year. Second, even high quality gluten can have its functionality diminished by the rigors of mechanical handling in the plant. Emulsifiers can interact with these proteins to build a stronger gluten network. Many emulsifiers can perform this function, but the ionic ones, such as the stearoyl lactylates, are believed to be the most effective. Although this application is probably the second most common use of emulsifiers -- behind starch complexing -- the mechanism behind protein interaction is the least understood emulsifier function. Perhaps the emulsifier helps the proteins associate with one another in some way -- possibly through hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding or ionic reactions. Present research hasn't revealed which of these interactions may be the crucial one or if some combination of the interactions is required. Other research suggests an entirely different theory involving the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction between lipids and gluten proteins. This dual effect is thought to be enhanced by emulsifiers' lipophilic/hydrophilic qualities.

2.3.1. Emulsifiers function as dough conditioners by improving the binding of wheat flour gluten strands to each other. After gas produced by the yeast escapes through weak sections of the gluten film, part of the gluten matrix collapses. Although the mechanism is not fully understood, dough strengtheners increase the amount of binding sites that gluten strands have to each other and/or form bridges to supplement disulfide linkages which results in a stronger gluten film.

2.3.2. Generally, the higher the moisture content of fresh baked goods, the greater the effects of staling. Yeast-raised products and cakes are more susceptible to staling than cookies and crackers. Bill Knightly of Emulsion Technology Inc., Wilmington, DE, has worked with emulsifiers since the late 1950s and has written many papers to prove the difference between crumb softening and staling. He explains, "The term 'crumb softener' is a misnomer. As bread is baked, water becomes bound or entrapped in gelatinized starch, which is a soft gel. As bread begins to stale, the starch network closes and the starch is transformed from this soft state into a firm, crystalline state. The bound water previously entrapped in this three-dimensional network gets squeezed out and becomes free water which then migrates to the crust, making the crust leathery." Although one cannot soften bread with emulsifiers, it is possible to slow the rate of staling. Knightly states that enzymes such as alpha-amylases can be considered true softeners. Enzymes cleave portions of the amylose chains in the dough, thereby disrupting the crystalline network in retrograded starch, reducing the rigidity and increasing the shelf life. He cautions that one must exert proper control over en-zyme activity in doughs, otherwise gummy, sticky products result. One of the best starch-complexing agents is a dispersible form of monoglycerides (saturated types), typically used at 0.5% to 1.0% of the flour weight. Other good starch complexers include CSLs, SSLs, DATEMs, and SMG. Most bakeries use a blend of "crumb softeners" and dough strengtheners.

2.4. Crystal modification. As previously discussed, fats -- including many fatty-acid emulsifiers -- exhibit polymorphism. The (-tending emulsifiers, however, have less of a polymorphic quality and tend to stay in the ( configuration. This property can be used to control crystallization in fat-based systems. Chocolate, for example, is tempered specifically to promote the formation of the more stable ( and (' crystals in the cocoa butter. Yet, some ( crystals may still be present. Another way ( crystals can emerge is if the chocolate is exposed to heat during transport, then cooled. These ( crystals will tend to convert to a more stable form. As they do, small amounts of the cocoa butter will migrate to the surface of the chocolate and appear as a grayish-blue haze known as bloom. Fat crystals can be used to "seed" a fat-containing system. By adding an (-tending emulsifier to chocolate, the a cocoa butter crystals that may appear will be inhibited from converting. This slows the appearance of fat bloom. Outside the United States, emulsifiers also are used to modify fat crystals in margarine. Fully hardened canola and sunflower oils are ( crystal stable. These ( crystals can become so large that they contribute a gritty mouthfeel. Adding an emulsifier will inhibit the large crystal formation to yield a much smoother product. When using an emulsifier for crystal modification, first select one that is not polymorphic. It must go into a specific crystal form and stay there. The emulsifier also should be lipophilic enough to be fully soluble in the food product's fat system. Remember, too, that the emulsifier's crystals must be available to seed the fat. Make sure that the emulsifier has a higher melting point and crystallizes more rapidly than the product's fat does.

2.5. Instantizing. Consumers want their powdered mixes to disperse rapidly and completely. This isn't always the case in mixes that contain significant amounts of fat. Again, the dual affinity of the emulsifier comes to the rescue. A fat-containing mix often will have fat on the surface of the individual particles. This, naturally, will resist dissolution in water. When an emulsifier is applied to the particle's surface, the lipophilic portion of its molecules will align with this fat, leaving the hydrophilic portion exposed. This gives the particle a greater affinity for water and aids dispersion. For other reasons, lower fat powders can resist dispersion and clump when added to water, too. "A good example is a protein that absorbs water quickly," says ADM's Colbert. "Because it hydrates so fast, it absorbs water on the surface and encapsulates the internal powder, forming a lump." An oil applied to the surface of such powders will slow the water absorption and reduce clumping. An emulsifier applied with that oil will improve the dispersion even more because it counteracts the oil's hydrophobic nature. Instantizing requires emulsifier levels ranging from 0.3% to 0.7%. Government regulations limit some emulsifiers to 0.5%. For this reason and for cost considerations, lecithin is possibly the most common emulsifier for instantizing. It's inexpensive compared with other emulsifiers, and its use level regulation is defined by Good Manufacturing Practice

2.6. Release agent. For smooth plant operation, food products must not stick to equipment. In a bread bakery, for example, product sticking can occur at many points during the operation -- on forming equipment, in pans, and on slicing machines. Using edible oils as a lubricant helps curb sticking, but emulsifiers -- either alone or added to the oil -- can be more effective. Theoretically, emulsifier molecules have a slight attraction to process equipment surfaces. Although the attraction is slight, it is enough to improve how the emulsifier or emulsifier/oil blend clings. Better cling means more effective anti-sticking. As with instantizing, cost and use level restrictions guide emulsifier selection in this application. This is again why lecithin is so common in bakery pan oils and other commercial food lubricants. Still, other emulsifiers do have specialized application in this area. Acetylated monoglyceride, for instance, has been shown to work well for lubricating bread slicer blades. The unique molecular structure of emulsifiers indeed provides many functional properties. These are useful in a range of food applications that goes far beyond maintaining salad dressing emulsions. Now, if only someone could invent an emulsifier that would make R&D and marketing more miscible...

2.7. Crumb softening in cakes involves moisture retention and efficiency of shortening action, as well as starch complexing. A sponge cake with emulsifiers will have higher volume, a more tender and uniform crumb, better crust appearance and increased shelf life. Choosing an emulsifier for a cake system depends on the type of fat used, production equipment available, and labeling issues. Emulsifiers for cake systems are usually added into the shortening at levels ranging from 4% to 14%. The most common emulsifier used in cake mixes is 10% to 14% propylene glycol monoesters (PGME), on a shortening basis. Typically, emulsifiers such as monoglycerides, polyglycerol esters, or SSLs are used in combination with "alpha-tending" emulsifiers such as PGME, acetylated mono glycerides, or lactylated monoglycerides. In vegetable oil formulations, one may choose a dispersible blend of PS-60, SSL, sorbitan monostearate, and monoglycerides or a fluid shortening containing lactic acid esters of monoglycerides. A traditional system still used by bakers contains a plastic shortening with 5% to 10% mono- diglycerides.

2.8. Cake batter is also an oil-in-water emulsion, with shortening or oil as the dispersed phase and water as the continuous phase. Emulsifiers, especially hydrophilic types, aid in mixing the fat phase with other ingredients. They aid in fat dispersion by breaking the fat into a large number of smaller particles. The integrity of the foam walls, formed by proteins, determines cake volume and uniform appearance. Shortening is an antifoam that tends to disrupt the foam cells. Emulsifiers coat the fat particles' exterior surface, providing protection to the protein film cell walls and eliminating film disruption. Because of this protection, bakers can incorporate plastic shortenings, as well as vegetable oils - notorious antifoams - in their formulations. Not only is vegetable oil easier to use because of its pumpability at room temperature, but 25% less fat is required in oil-containing bakery formulations compared with those that contain plastic shortening. Vegetable oil also enhances the moistness.

3. definition

3.1. Emulsions are formed when one immiscible phase is dispersed in another through mechanical action such as homogenization. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are formed when oil is dispersed in an aqueous phase (e.g., mayonnaise) while water becomes the dispersed phase in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions (e.g., margarine). Surfactants help keep the immiscible phases in an emulsion together because they are amphiphilic and thus have properties that are compatible with both the hydrophilic and lipophilic portion of the mixture. Non-polar ends of an emulsifier align themselves within the lipid phase, while the polar ends align in the water phase. As a result, an electrically charged surface forms between the two immiscible phases, or at the interface, causing particles to repel one another rather than coalesce

4. surface-active

4.1. Mixtures of immiscible fluids are not only stabilized by amphiphilic molecules composed of lipids that have been chemically modified through esterification with alcohols and acids, but also by proteins. Proteins, which are large, complex molecules containing various amino acids with different degrees of hydrophobicity, exhibit their surface active tendencies by adsorbing at the interface that lies between the two immiscible phases. It is during the adsorption process that the protein begins to unfold, thereby exposing its more hydrophobic groups to the hydrophobic phase of the emulsion. The stabilization mechanism for lipid-based emulsifiers differs somewhat from proteins in that proteins form a viscoelastic gel at the interface as they interact with one another. This viscoelastic gel stretches and deforms as it accommodates deformations in the interface and, as such, prevents coalescence. On the other hand, lipid-based emulsifiers provide stability by causing the rapid diffusion of liquid from areas of high surface tension to regions of low tension, which occurs when there is a gradient in the surface tension at the interface. This phenomenon is known as the Gibbs-Marangoni effect. (See sidebar “Protein and Surfactants 101.”) Destabilization of an emulsion can occur in various ways. Creaming is a gravitational separation of phases (i.e., oil phase floats to the surface). During flocculation, clumping occurs without a disruption to the interfacial film, whereas with coalescence, the interfacial film is disrupted as droplets collide and form a separate phase. Flocculation is reversible, while coalescence is not. The complexity of emulsion stability is compounded by the many factors that influence it. Aside from interfacial tension, emulsion stability is affected by the viscosity of the continuous phase; density differences between phases (e.g., ester gum added to flavor oil in beverages to “weight it” and prevent ringing); droplet size in the internal phase (i.e., the smaller the size, the more stable the emulsion); temperature extremes and the presence of solids (i.e., finely divided solids “wetted” equally well by both phases at the interface will stabilize the emulsion, whereas a higher percentage of solids dispersed in the internal phase will destabilize the emulsion).

4.2. Stabilization of emulsions is just one function associated with emulsifiers. Whey ingredients, for instance, aid in the dispersion of fat in sauces and soups, which enhances the perception of creaminess, reports Dairy Management Inc. Thus, efficient dispersion of oil can help reduce the fat level in certain formulations of sauces, soups and salad dressings. Confections such as mousse, meringue and nougat also benefit from whey proteins' ability to stabilize whipping and foaming action where the protein aligns itself at the interface between air and aqueous phase. Most hydrocolloid gums stabilize emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous aqueous phase (i.e., water phase in an O/W emulsion such as salad dressing), notes Mar Nieto, PhD, director of technical services for an ingredients company specializing in gum technology. “In a high-oil product such as mayonnaise, the emulsification of the oil with an emulsifier such as egg yolk and/or lecithin results in significant viscosity buildup; hence, a 'viscofier' is not needed,” adds Nieto. Nieto also points out that certain gums, such as propylene glycol alginate, gum Arabic and tragacanth gum are amphoteric in nature and thus function as true emulsifiers. The hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) is one of the means used to select the appropriate emulsifier for a particular type of food or beverage application. HLB values range from 0 to 20 and dictate the relative amphiphilicity of a surfactant. Low HLB ingredients are more oil-soluble, while those with higher values are more water-soluble. “An oil/fat continuous product would need a lower HLB emulsifier, and an aqueous system would require a higher HLB,” explains Bruce R. Sebree, PhD, manager of emulsifiers and texturizers for an ingredients company specializing in a range of products including emulsifiers, baking enhancers and acidulants. “Many times, a median HLB emulsifier may work well in both systems. The developer needs to keep in mind that several types of emulsifiers have modified versions (physical blends, chemically modified, enzymatically modified, etc.) available, which widens the HLB offerings and, in turn, broadens the range of possibilities for that emulsifier type. Lecithin, monoglyceride, polyglycerol esters and sucrose esters are among the more common emulsifiers that have multiple HLB versions available. At times, high- HLB/low-HLB combinations are required, as are mixtures of charged/uncharged or large/small molecular weight emulsifiers. Coverage of the oil/water interface is essential in emulsion systems, and a combination of unlike emulsifiers can improve packing [i.e., molecule arrangement at the surface] by sitting differently at the interface.”

5. application on surface active properties

5.1. Mono- and diglycerides (E471) are commonly used in a various foods and non-food applications. The main function of DMG in margarine is to create a stable emulsion of water droplets equally dispersed in oil (fat) PGE, Polyglycerol esters (E475) are widely used in the food industry as they combine hydrophilic and lipophilic properties in the same molecule. PGE is used in margarine because of its ability to create air in the emulsion and stabilize it

5.2. Mouth-feel is also affected by the efficiency of the homogenisation and spray drying as the size of the particles will affect the flavour release. The above is in turn affected greatly by the quality, type and amount of emulsifiers used in the NDC. Mono- and diglycerides and Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate are the most commonly used emulsifiers in NDCs, but they have different qualities and affect mouth-feel of the NDC differently. MDG/DMGs are more lipophilic, so they attach more to the fat phase, whereas SSL is more hydrophilic and attaches to the water phase. In practice, this means that by using different emulsifiers, there is a synergistic effect which allows a more stable emulsion to be obtained. Emulsifiers also play a key role in creating a good whitening effect in the NDC as it all comes down to creating many small oil droplets to reflect light in the coffee. The emulsifiers are fundamental in stabilizing the formed small oil droplets during the spray drying process. Once the NDC is dissolved in the coffee and the oil droplets have been released, emulsifiers also have a key role to play as the environment is completely different from that of the emulsion before spraying with regards to temperatures and acidity. It is therefore highly important that the emulsifiers used can ensure functionality and stability in both environments. Emulsifiers such as SSL work well in acidic environments and help keep the fat globules small and stable. Sodium caseinate also has a stabilising effect.

6. application

6.1. Many confectionery manufacturers have traditionally used lecithin, (E322) to regulate the rheology of an ice cream coating. In chocolate, lecithin is typically dosed around 0.4% as this is where the optimal functionality is found – and is this exceeded the YV will increase. In ice cream coating, typically 0.7 – 0.8% lecithin, derived from soybeans or sunflower oil is used in order to have a buffer against water migration during the production process. This is working but it is possible to achieve a far better result! To achieve still more resilient buffering against water migration – and to improve the flow properties of the liquid chocolate mass, emulsifiers of a different kind are the weapons of choice

6.2. Mono- and diglycerides (E471) lower the interfacial tension in the water-in-oil emulsion, increase the viscosity of the emulsion so that the tendency to phase reversion is reduced, and prevent the agglomeration of the water droplets Citrem, Citric acid esters of mono and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c) produce an emulsifier film between the dough layers and give a better layer separation and expansion in the laminated pastry system, and help stabilise the layers during baking process PGE, Polyglycerol esters (E475) are widely used in the food industry as they combine hydrophilic and lipophilic properties in the same molecule. PGE is used in margarine because of its ability to create air in the emulsion and stabilize it at the same time Crystal promoters such as Palsgaard® 6111 create a crystal network, giving the oil-absorbing effect that will provide oil absorption for hot climate and summer recipes

6.3. Emulsifiers have different functionalities in margarines and often complement each other, leading to improved product quality: Mono- and diglycerides (E471) such as Palsgaard® DMG 0291, Palsgaard® DMG 0295 and Palsgaard® DMG 0298 lower the interfacial tension in the water-in-oil emulsion, increase the viscosity of the emulsion so that the tendency to phase reversion is reduced, and prevent agglomeration of the water droplets PGPR, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) such as Palsgaard® PGPR 4110 and Palsgaard® PGPR 4175, prevents the phase separation in the emulsion tank during preparation and in the first part of the tube chiller during production Crystal promoters such as Palsgaard® 6111 and Palsgaard® 6118 make production of spreads more secure, because the fast crystallization creates many small crystals, preventing the water droplets from agglomerating. In the final spreads, the crystal promoters absorb oil, preventing oiling-out problems during the entire shelf-life of the finished product Lecithin, (E322) is an emulsifier well-suited for frying margarine, ensuring less spattering, a good foam and an even browning effect. With both a lipophile and hydrophile part lecithin helps provide the right balance between stability and instability in the emulsion Citrem, Citric acid esters of mono and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c) such as Palsgaard® Citrem 3203 offers an allergen-free alternative to lecithin with good emulsification and anti-spattering behaviour, and can be used in all-purpose margarines also

6.4. Emulsifiers are used in both chocolate and sugar confectionery products as functional additives that provide significant advantages during both processing and storage. Emulsifiers serve several different functions in confectionery products. In products containing a dispersed fat phase (caramel, toffee, etc.), emulsifiers help to promote breakdown into small fat globules. Emulsifiers also provide lubrication, in part through dispersion of the fat phase, for ease in processing and ease in consumption. In chewing and bubble gum, emulsifiers act as plasticizers of the gum base and also provide a hydration effect during chewing. In fat-continuous confections, namely chocolate and coatings, emulsifiers provide viscosity control, influence fat crystallization, and, as bloom inhibitors, moderate polymorphic transformations of the lipid phase. An emulsifier acts as a surfactant in some confections. In these cases, the role of the emulsifier is to modify the behavior of the continuous phase of a food product such as to bring about a specific effect or benefit. The most common example of this in confectionery is the use of an emulsifier like lecithin in chocolate to reduce the viscosity of the product and improve the ease of handling and processability

7. Simple definition

7.1. capable of creating an emulsion- to mix liquids that are not themselves capable of binding to each other

7.2. ingredient that ensures that water and oil can be mixed together so that fluids remain evenly distributed in each other more

8. Mechanisms

8.1. have 2 components- a hydrophilic/water-loving head, and a hydrophobic/water-fearing tail. its hydrophilic head will prefer to associate with water, and the hydrophobic tail with the oil droplets. this prevents separation thus stabilizes the emulsion. An emulsion is a mixture of two substances that are immiscible with one another

8.2. consist of molecules of a water-loving nature and a fat-loving nature so emulsifier acts a binding agent between fat and water

8.3. emulsions can be oil-in-water like salad dressing, where small oil droplets are dispersed into water or water-in-oil like butter where small water droplets are dispersed throughout oil. Emulsifier is substance that decreases the tension between particles of each liquid allowing them to mix successfully

9. Sources

9.1. come from plant and consist primarily from vegetable oil from rapeseed palm, sunflower and soya beans