Types of suppository bases

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Types of suppository bases by Mind Map: Types of suppository bases

1. Oily bases or oleoginous bases

1.1. Emulsified cocoa butter

1.1.1. -Emulsified Theobroma oil maybe used as base when large quantities of aqueous solutions are to be incorporated. -5% Glyceryl monostearate, 10% Lanette wax, 2_3% cetyl alcohol &4% bees wax is recommended for emulsified Theobroma oil.

1.2. Hydrogenated oils

1.2.1. _Used as a substitute of Theobroma oil. -E.g. Hydrogenated edible oil, coconut oil, hydrogenated pea oil, stearic acid, palm kernel oil....etc.

1.2.2. _Advantages:- -overheating doesn't affect the solidifying point. -they are resistant to oxidation. -lubrication of the mould is not required. -their emulsifying &water absorbing capacity are good.

1.2.3. _Disadvantages:- -on rapid cooling they become brittle. -when melted they are more fluid than Theobroma oil &result in greater sedimentation of the added substanc.

1.3. Cocoa butter or Theobroma oil

1.3.1. Advantages -Melting just below the body temperature. -Mentaining its solidity at usual room temperature. -Readily liquefy on heating and solidify on cooling.

1.3.2. Disadvantages -Rancidity. -Stick to mould. -Leakage from body cavity. -Costly. -Immiscibility with body fluid. -Chloral hydrate or lactic acid liquefy it.

2. Hydrophilic bases

2.1. Glycero_gelatin base

2.1.1. _It's a mixture of glycerin and water which made stiff by the addition of gelatin. _Properties:- -It is colourless, transparent, translucent in nature. -It is soft to touch. -It melt at 30_35°C. _Used for vaginal suppositories.

2.1.2. _Disadvantages:- -difficult to prepare and handle. -chance of bacterial growth. -laxative in action. -hygroscopic in nature. -incompatible with tannic acid, ferric chloride..etc.

2.1.3. _Advantages:- -It melt at body temperature. -It mix with body fluid. -not rancid. -It can be used to prepare suppositories using boric acid, chloral hydrate bromides, iodides, iodoform opium...etc.

2.2. Soap_glycerin base

2.3. Polyethylene glycol

2.3.1. -these are commonly known as carbo waxes &polyglycols. -these are available in solid, liquid or semi-solid state depending on molecular weight. -those polymers having the molecular weight between 200 to 1000 are liquids &those are having M.W higher than 1000 are wax like solids. -they are chemically stable & physiologically inert substance & don't allow the bacterial or mould growth to take place.

2.3.2. _Advantages:- -they are chemically stable. -inert, non_irritant. -don't allow bacterial growth. -physical properties change according to molecular weight. -provide prolonged action. -don't Stick to mould. -Suppositories are clean and smooth in appearance.

3. Emulsifying/Synthetic bases

3.1. Witepsol

3.1.1. -they consist of triglycerides of saturated vegetable fatty acid with varying percentage of partial esters. -a small amount of beeswax is added for use in hot climate. -it shouldn't be cooled rapidly as it become brittle and fracture. -lubrication is required.

3.2. Massa estarinum

3.2.1. -It's a mixture of mono, Di, triglycerides of saturated fatty acids. -It's a white, brittle, almost odourless and tasteless solid. -it has a m.p. 33.5 to 35.5°C. -they are available in various grades but grand B is commonly used in dispensing. _Method preparation:- -Hand rolling. -Fusion method. -Cold compression.

3.3. Massuppol

3.3.1. _Advantages:- -they are solidify rapidly. -they are non_irritant. -the lubrication of mould is not required. -overheating doesn't affect the physical properties of the base. -they can absorb fairly large amount of water or aqueous liquids. -the white, odourless, clean and attractive suppositories are produced. -they are less liable to get rancid.

3.4. _Disadvantages:- -they should not be cooled rapidly in a refrigerator because they become brittle. -they are not very viscouse on melting, so the medicaments incorporated with the base settle down rapidly.