Cataract

catract

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Cataract by Mind Map: Cataract

1. 1- Definition : is the name given to any light - scattering opacity within the lens wherever it is located

2. 2 -Symptoms:

2.1. 1.Glare.

2.2. 2.painless gradual loss of vision.

2.3. 3.Change in refraction.

2.4. 4.Altered colour perception .

2.5. 5.Halos around lights .

2.6. 6. Double vision

3. 4- Risk factors :

3.1. 1.Increasing age.

3.2. 2.Diabetes

3.3. 3.Excessive exposure to sunlight

3.4. 4.Smoking

3.5. 5.Obesity

3.6. 6.High blood pressure

3.7. 7.Previous eye injury or 8.inflammation

3.8. 9.Previous eye surgery

3.9. 10.Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications

4. 6- Ocular c onditions a ssociated with c ataract

4.1. Trauma.

4.2. Uveitis.

4.3. High myopia.

4.4. Topical medication (particularly steroid eye drops).

4.5. Intraocular tumour.

5. 3- Sings:

5.1. Visual acuity is reduced

5.2. direct ophthalmoscope :appears black against the red reflex

5.3. Slit - lamp examination allows the exact site of the opacity in the lens can be identified

6. 5- Systemic causes of cataract :.

6.1. Diabetes.

6.2. Other metabolic disorders (including galactosaemia, hypocalcaemia.

6.3. Systemic drugs (particularly steroids, chlorpromazine).

6.4. Infection (congenital rubella).

6.5. Myotonic dystrophy.

6.6. Atopic dermatitis.

6.7. Systemic syndromes (Down ’ s, Lowe ’ s).

6.8. Congenital, including inherited, cataract.

6.9. X - radiation.

7. 7- Treatment : management remains surgical. There is no need to wait for the cataract to ‘ ripen ’ and cause major visual loss.

8. 8- Complications of cataract surgery :

8.1. 1 Vitreous loss

8.2. 2 Iris prolapse

8.3. 3 Endophthalmitis.

8.3.1. painful red eye;

8.3.2. reduced visual acuity;

8.3.3. collection of white cells in the anterior chamber (hypopyon).

8.4. 4 Cystoid macular oedema

8.5. 5 Retinal detachment.

8.6. 6 Opacifi cation of the posterior capsule