Colorectal carcinoma

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Colorectal carcinoma by Mind Map: Colorectal carcinoma

1. finds occult (hidden) blood in the stool through a chemical reaction.

1.1. This test must be done every year

2. Guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT

3. Treatment

3.1. Local treatments

3.1.1. Surgery for Colon Cancer Surgery for Rectal Cancer Ablation and Embolization for Colorectal Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer

3.2. Systemic treatments

3.2.1. Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer

3.2.2. Targeted Therapy for Colorectal Cancer Bevacizumab (Avastin) Ramucirumab (Cyramza) Ziv-aflibercept (Zaltrap)

3.2.3. Immunotherapy for Colorectal Cancer PD-1 inhibitors CTLA-4 inhibitor

4. Stages

4.1. TNM system

4.1.1. (size) of the tumor (T)

4.1.2. The spread to nearby lymph nodes (N)

4.1.3. The spread (metastasis) to distant sites (M)

5. Screening Tests

5.1. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)

5.2. Colonoscopy

5.3. CT colonography

5.4. Flexible sigmoidoscopy

5.4.1. A flexible sigmoidoscopy is similar to a colonoscopy except is doesn’t examine the entire colon.

6. Signs and Symptoms

6.1. A change in bowel habits

6.1.1. diarrhea

6.1.2. constipation

6.1.3. narrowing of the stool that lasts for more than a few days

6.2. Rectal bleeding with bright red blood

6.3. Blood in the stool

6.4. Cramping or abdominal (belly) pain

6.5. fatigue

6.6. weight loss

7. Causes

7.1. Inherited gene mutations

7.1.1. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP),

7.1.2. Lynch syndrome

7.1.3. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

7.1.4. MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP)

7.2. Acquired gene mutations

8. Risk Factors

8.1. Being overweight or obese

8.2. Not being physically active

8.3. Certain types of diets

8.4. Smoking

8.5. Alcohol use

8.6. Old age

8.7. A personal history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer

8.8. A personal history of inflammatory bowel disease

8.9. family history of colorectal cancer

9. Types

9.1. Carcinoid tumors.

9.2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs

9.3. Lymphomas

9.4. Sarcomas

10. Morphology

10.1. Cecum

10.1.1. ascending colon, 22%

10.1.2. transverse colon 11%

10.1.3. descending colon 6%

10.1.4. rectosigmoid colon 55%

10.1.5. other sites, 6%

11. Pathogenesis

11.1. dietary factors

11.1.1. (1) excess dietary caloric intake relative to requirements

11.1.2. 2) a low content of un-absorbable vegetable fiber

11.1.3. 3) a corresponding high content of refined carbohydrates

11.1.4. 4) intake of red meat

11.1.5. 5) decreased intake of protective micronutrients (like vitamins

12. Colorectal cancer starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be called colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start.

12.1. Colon

12.1.1. ascending

12.1.2. Transverse colon

12.1.3. descending colon

12.1.4. sigmoid colon (in false pelvis)

13. Epidemiology

13.1. The peak incidence for colorectal carcinoma is between ages 60 and 79

13.2. With lesions in the rectum, the male-to-female ratio is 1.2:1; for more proximal tumors there is no gender difference.