East Asia

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East Asia by Mind Map: East Asia

1. Sports and Games

1.1. Sepak Takraw

1.1.1. Sepak Takraw is also called Foot Volleyball. It is a popular sport in Southeast Asia. It is a sport where teams of three try to keep a rattan ball from touching the ground on their side, kick it over the net, and make it hit the ground on the opponent's side. Players can touch the ball with their feet, head and chest. This can lead to many athletic moves, like backflips.

1.2. Badminton

1.2.1. Though badminton was first invented in Europe, the sport is very popular in Asia. It is even the most popular sport in some Asian countries. It is similar to volleyball, but players use a racket and shuttlecock to play.

1.3. Shuttlecock

1.3.1. Shuttlecock is a game very similar to badminton. The only difference is that players cannot use a racket. Players must use their feet to keep a shuttlecock in the air. This game is popular in Asia.

1.4. Soccer

1.4.1. Like in most areas of the world, soccer is a very popular sport throughout East Asia. There is no clear origin for the sport, as it could have started in China, Greece, Rome, or Central America. The 2002 FIFA world cup was hosted by Japan and Korea.

1.5. Basketball

1.5.1. Like in America, Basketball is a popular sport in East Asia. It is even considered the most popular sport in the Philippines. Though basketball was not invented in this region, the sport found its way into it. Teams and players from this region have been noticed by people all around the world.

1.6. Muay

1.6.1. Muay kickboxing goes by many different names. These names differ based on location. In Thailand and Laos, it is called Muay. It is called Pradal Serey in Cambodia, Tomoi in Malaysia, and Lethwei in Myanmar. Muay Thai kickboxing differs from ordinary kickboxing because of its use of eight striking points. In ordinary kickboxing, only feet and hands can be used, while Muay Thai allows the use of elbows and knees in addition to feet and hands.

1.7. Go

1.7.1. Go is a strategy board game that is often compared to chess. It is the oldest board game that is still being played as it was invented 4,000 years ago in China. The objective of the game is to control more territory than your opponent. This is done by surrounding the area with your pieces. This game is similar to chess, as it has many of the same ideas. There are strategies, openings, theory, and rankings.

2. Music

2.1. Traditional Instruments

2.1.1. China

2.1.1.1. Qin

2.1.1.1.1. long, fretless zither

2.1.1.1.2. https://cdn10.bigcommerce.com/s-45bvnuz3/product_images/uploaded_images/img-5939ok-1-1.jpg

2.1.1.2. Sheng

2.1.1.2.1. mouth organ with 17 pipes

2.1.1.2.2. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Sheng_MET_DP216617.jpg

2.1.1.3. Di

2.1.1.3.1. transverse flute

2.1.1.3.2. https://e.ecimg.tw/items/AIAH2HA50820506/i010001_1462906604.jpg

2.1.1.4. Pipa

2.1.1.4.1. four stringed pear-shaped flute

2.1.1.4.2. https://www.easonmusicschool.com/wp-content/uploads/Pipa-1.png

2.1.2. Japan

2.1.2.1. Shamisen

2.1.2.1.1. a three stringed traditional instrument

2.1.2.1.2. https://www.senzoku-online.jp/TMDL/gallery/02-shamisen/p3.jpg

2.1.2.2. Shakuhachi

2.1.2.2.1. a bamboo flute with four holes

2.1.2.2.2. https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/91p8Zaz2wjL._AC_SL1500_.jpg

2.1.2.3. Biwa

2.1.2.3.1. Japanese Pipa, four strings and frets

2.1.2.3.2. https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/1843/5225/products/581982d4c2fecf8bcf4336ba4a1af18c.jpg?v=1565284936

2.1.2.4. Sho

2.1.2.4.1. a mouth organ made of bamboo and wood

2.1.2.4.2. https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/1843/5225/products/sho0_846a8d66-030b-4d76-956e-f23ab90b0597_600x.jpg?v=1584073508

2.1.3. Korea

2.1.3.1. Piri

2.1.3.1.1. cylindrical bamboo similar to an oboe

2.1.3.1.2. https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/61LlxAPAoRL._AC_SL1500_.jpg

2.1.3.2. Kkwaenggwari

2.1.3.2.1. a small gong struck with a wooden mallet

2.1.3.2.2. https://d3ecqbn6etsqar.cloudfront.net/OHYpGwO60mVUa7DDMVYR63YyZgc=/349376.jpg

2.1.3.3. Janggu

2.1.3.3.1. an hour glass shaped drum

2.1.3.3.2. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Janggu.jpg

2.1.3.4. Geomungo

2.1.3.4.1. six-stringed zither

2.1.3.4.2. https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/LyAAAOSwg~9ckL81/s-l400.jpg

2.2. Traditional Music

2.2.1. Japanese Traditional Music

2.2.1.1. Tanko Bushi

2.2.1.1.1. Tanko Bushi is a popular song and dance at Bon dances during the Bon festival. The Bon festival is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the spirits of one's ancestors. It is often taught as a representative Japenese folk dance outside the country. The dance originated in the coal-mining region of Kyushu, and its movements mimic the work done by coal miners: digging the coal, throwing the coal into the coal hopper, and pushing the coal hopper along a track.

2.2.1.2. Soran Bushi

2.2.1.2.1. Soran Bushi is one of the most famous traditional songs and dance. It is a work song from Hokkaido sung by fishermen to accompany the arduous task of pulling in nets full of fish. This dance acts by acting ocean waves, fishermen dragging nets, pulling ropes and lifting luggage. During the dance, the words "Dokkoisho" and "Soran" would be called as an encouragement to the fishermen.

2.2.1.3. Asadoya Yunta

2.2.1.3.1. Asadoya Yunta is one of the most popular Okinawan folk songs. Tourism groups use it to invoke images of the tropical paradise. It shares the story of a beautiful lady rejecting the wedding proposal from a government official. Traditionally, it is accompanied by the sanshin, the Okinawan equivalent of the shamisen, a Japanese instrument.

2.2.2. Korean Traditional Music

2.2.2.1. Arirang

2.2.2.1.1. Arirang is originated from the southern half of the Korean peninsula, it is the most known Korean folk song. Sung by both North and South Korea as a symbol of unity in a divided region, it is in the South Korean Cultural Heritage Administration's list of important intangible cultural assets. It has many different versions and variations.

2.2.3. Chinese Traditional Music

2.2.3.1. Chinese Opera

2.2.3.1.1. https://i0.wp.com/zolimacitymag.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/700_933.Farewellmyconcubine_HKAF_Zolimacitymag.2.jpg?fit=700%2C933&ssl=1

2.2.3.1.2. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/44/Song_So-Hee_performing_Arirang.jpg/250px-Song_So-Hee_performing_Arirang.jpg

2.2.3.1.3. Chinese opera is a form of musical theater. It incorporated various art forms such as music, song and dance, martial arts, acrobatics, costume and make-up art. There are over a hundred regional branches of traditional Chinese opera today, among them the most popular being Peking opera.

2.2.3.2. Mo Li Hua

2.2.3.2.1. Mo Li Hua is a popular Chinese folk song from Jiangnan. There are different versions of this song with different lyrics and melody. It describes the custom of giving jasmine flowers.

2.2.3.3. Kuaiban

2.2.3.3.1. Kuaiban is a type of rhythmic talking and singing which is often performed with a percussive instrument such as paiban.

2.3. Popular Music

2.3.1. China

2.3.1.1. Many music genres were not accepted because of the government's heavy promotion on revolutionary music and censorship on rebellious topics

2.3.1.2. Chinese pop music has quite simple melody and is therefore picked up more quickly by listeners. It often has basic chords and not much strangeness.

2.3.1.3. Chinese pop music has collected the western music genres like R&B and rock while it also kept some of its traditional aspects of music, creating its new unique music that is influenced by western music.

2.3.2. Japan

2.3.2.1. In the late 19th century, the Japanese school curriculum decided to favor Western music over traditional Japanese music.

2.3.2.2. Like China, modern Japanese popular music is also heavily influenced by the west.

2.3.2.3. Japan adopted music forms from the west and developed it on their own. They now have their sub genres of western music genres like Kawaii Future Base.

2.3.3. Korea

2.3.3.1. Korean, just as China and Japan, gradually became influenced by western music as it gained popularity after the Korean War. Pentatony was replaced with heptachords and there was an imitation of American music.

2.3.3.2. Korean popular musicians implemented western popular music elements into their songs such as hip hop, jazz, and rock, which foreshadowed the emergence of K-pop, an enormous industry built upon popular music shaped by western music.

3. Dumplings in East Asia- Many foods are common around the world, but the dumpling stands out the most in East Asia. Although prepared differently, it is happily eaten across Asia

3.1. China

3.1.1. China is the number one country credited with the creation of the dumpling. Thier most common dumpling is Xiao Long Bao or "Soup Dumpling".

3.1.1.1. Xiao Long Bao is typically prepared with a wheat wrapper and filled with pork or crab. The dumplings are then twisted at the top, and then typically served in a bamboo basket.

3.1.1.2. https://img.theculturetrip.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/bf5d1b-1.jpg

3.2. Vietnam

3.2.1. Vietnam typically different varieties of dumplings. The most common form of dumpling is Bành Gió.

3.2.1.1. Bành Gió is typically made with rice flour base and then filled with ground pork, shallots, and mushrooms. The base is placed into a banana leaf, and then steamed.

3.2.1.2. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-DdIU1dwawII/Vft6oXhZqvI/AAAAAAAABaY/tzu6r4z0gx0/s1600/IMG_0056.JPG

3.3. Nepal

3.3.1. Nepalese dumplings have became a delicacy throughout Nepal. The popular dumplings are knows as Momo dumplings.

3.3.1.1. Momo dumplings are prepared by stuffing the dumplings with cheese, meat or vegetables. These dumplings are then typically served with a tomato based sauce.

3.3.1.2. http://www.sbs.com.au/food/sites/sbs.com.au.food/files/7_3.jpg

3.4. Taiwan

3.4.1. Taiwanese dumplings are very prevalent in Taiwan, and is in fact one of Taiwan's national dishes. The Taiwan dumplings are typically knows as Ba-wan.

3.4.1.1. Ba-wan has a base consisting of rice flour and potato starch wrapper. The filling is made with pork, bamboo, and mushrooms then can either be fried or steamed. This can be served with either a sweet-spicy sauce, or be used as a broth for a soup.

3.4.1.2. https://static1.bigstockphoto.com/5/7/3/large1500/375235270.jpg

3.5. Philippines

3.5.1. In the Philippines, dumplings are small and really served more as an appetizer. Philippines dumplings are called Pinsec Frito.

3.5.1.1. Pinsec Frito is always deep fried with ground meet or seafood filling. They are wrapped with a wonton wrapper, and then serve with different types of sauces such as sweet and sour or a pork liver sauce.

3.5.1.2. http://www.kawalingpinoy.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/pinsecfrito2a.jpg

3.6. Japan

3.6.1. The Japanese dumplings are known as Gyoza, and although they resemble Chinese dumplings. They have been adapted to fit Japanese culture.

3.6.1.1. Gyoza is filled with minced pork and vegetables, and can be either boiled, steamed, or fried. Then eaten with a dipping sauce, and there are 3 main ways to eat Gyoza. Yaki-Gyoza, Age-Gyoza, and Sui-Gyoza. Yaki-Gyoza is prepared pan-fried and then crisped up as a crunchy dumpling. Age-Gyoza is made deep fried and served very hot, and Sui-Gyoza is boiled and served with a chewy consistency

3.6.1.2. https://www.justonecookbook.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Gyoza-w722.jpg

4. Art and Architecture

4.1. Art

4.1.1. Traditional Art

4.1.1.1. In the past, traditional art in East Asia often had concepts or themes in religion in them. Two of the biggest religions with art are Confucianism and Buddhism.

4.1.1.1.1. Buddhism

4.1.1.1.2. Confuscinism

4.1.2. Modern

4.1.2.1. Modern art often has some traditional themes. However, the art in Asia is starting to reflect key issues in Asia and the stance the artist has on them. Some of these issues include politics, women's issues, and the environment.

4.1.2.1.1. After Japan invaded Korea in World War II, many women in Korea became reduced to "Comfort Women" for the Japanese army. Japan's invasion has often been a controversial political topic. Kim Ho-Suk's art piece, The History of Korea's Resistance Against Japanese Colonialism: Comfort Women, focuses on the "Comfort Women during WW II. https://greyartgallery.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/g10a.jpg

4.1.2.1.2. Yun Suknam's art, Day and Night, represents the role women play in society. Her pieces often have themes of feminism. This painting shows the role of a female as a mother in a family. https://greyartgallery.nyu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/a59b1.jpg

4.2. Architecture

4.2.1. Traditional

4.2.1.1. As time went on, religion could be seen more and more in the architecture of Asian cities and buildings.

4.2.1.1.1. Buddhist temples - These structures often had heavy influences on nature. For example, some temples were carved out of mountains or included large pavilions for the outdoors. https://4cawmi2va33i3w6dek1d7y1m-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/5.3-Ancient-Buddhist-temples-in-Bagan-Myanmar.jpg

4.2.1.1.2. Hindu temples - These temples were built to connect worshipers to their gods and to worship them. Because of this, these temples had a lot of integrations of cosmology and nature. These temples were built similarly to mountain ranges as well. https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5f0f/0688/b357/65e5/9b00/00b0/slideshow/8527129172_826e5e1e8e_k.jpg?1594820224

4.2.1.2. Certain traditional symbols also had a major influence on architecture.

4.2.1.2.1. In China, Yellow was the official color of the Emperor and was therefore used for Imperial buildings. The designs of the buildings have also been based on the preferences of the Emperor. The Forbidden City is an example of this influence on architecture. https://4cawmi2va33i3w6dek1d7y1m-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/5.5-The-Forbidden-City-Chinese-imperial-palace-from-the-Ming-dynasty-to-the-end-of-the-Qing-dynasty-Beijing-China.jpg

4.2.1.2.2. In East Asia, the dragon is a symbol of luck, power, and strength in many cultures. Because of this, dragons and other symbols are often seen as decorations buildings and temples in East Asia. https://4cawmi2va33i3w6dek1d7y1m-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/5.4-The-figure-of-a-dragon-on-the-roof-of-a-Chinese-temple.jpg

4.2.2. Modern

4.2.2.1. Many new Asian homes and buildings are starting to focus more on simplicity and minimalism. This is because of the increasing belief in pop culture that less is more.

4.2.2.1.1. https://architects.zone/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Screen-Shot-2017-08-30-at-22.44.18.png

4.2.2.2. There is a growing focus on eco-friendly architecture in Asia. Buildings are starting to have more windows for more natural light. Solar panels and better ventilation systems are also being integrated.

4.2.2.2.1. https://architects.zone/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Screen-Shot-2017-08-30-at-22.48.06.png

4.2.2.2.2. Eco-Friendly building materials like green steel are also being used. https://architects.zone/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Screen-Shot-2017-08-30-at-22.50.00.png

5. The History of Dumplings

5.1. Origin

5.1.1. China

5.1.1.1. China is the first country credited with the creation of the dumpling. A famous Physician named Zhang Zhongjing wanted to help treat frost bite affected by the streets of the city. To save his poor citizens, he decided to lamb and herbs and then wrap them into dough skin. After a few days, everyone got saved and the dish became a large hit. Eventually everyone began to replicate the dish for Chinese New Years.

5.1.2. Japan

5.1.2.1. Japanese gyoza dumplings are often a favorite over Japan. They were introduced to the area when Japanese soldiers in WW2 were quartered all over China. They ate dumplings, and when they returned back home decided to recreate the dumplings they learned back home. The dumplings were then adapted to fit the Japanese culture.

5.1.3. Nepal

5.1.3.1. The Nepalese dumplings origins are quite unknown but have some theories. It is believed that the area of tibet originally introduced Nepal to these Dumplings. The ingredients were then adapted to meats found in nepal.

5.1.4. Taiwan

5.1.4.1. Taiwanese dumplings became popular because of China. China and Taiwan have been pretty close as lots of Taiwanese people originated from China. When dumplings grew to popularity in China they managed to also take over in Taiwan.

5.1.5. Vietnam

5.1.5.1. Vietnamese Dumplings are believed to have originated as a treat to the emperors. They were packaged in banana leafs to appeal to the emperors.

5.2. Modern Effects

5.2.1. Chinese people have been eating the dumplings for hundreds of years. The tradition is to eat dumplings during the lunar new year. As people migrated, dumplings migrated as well. Most countries have their own form of dumplings. Billions of people now eat and love dumplings as dumplings have captivated the whole world.

6. By Raj Ginde, Kevin Mau, Pradyun Solai, and Yufan Zhou