Here is my mind map about emulsifier

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1. Emulsions

1.1. A dispersed two phase system, an intimate mixture of two liquid that are immiscible under normal conditions, whereby one phase is dispersed in the other in the form of fine droplets

1.2. type of simple emulsion

1.2.1. (a) water in oil (w/o)

1.2.2. (b) oil in water (o/w)

1.3. stability of an emulsion depends on

1.3.1. - degree of division of the inner phase

1.3.2. - quality / stability of the interfacial film

1.3.3. - viscosity of the outer phase

1.3.4. - ratio & the specific weight of the volumes of the two phases

2. Emulsifiers

2.1. substance which reduce the surface tension at interface of two normally immiscible phases, allowing them to mix and form an emulsion

2.1.1. - to improve the texture of fat based foods by controlling the polymorphism of fats

2.2. belong to the general class of compounds

2.2.1. surface-active agents or surfactants

2.3. function of emulsifiers

2.3.1. - to promote emulsion stability, stabilize aerated system and control agglomeration of fat globules

2.3.2. - to modify texture, shelf life and rheological properties by complexing with starch and protein compounds

3. How does emulsifier work?

3.1. emulsifier reduce surface tension between the two immiscible phases due to their molecular structure

3.1.1. - polar group with an affinity for water (hydrophilic)

3.1.2. - non polar group with an affinity for oil (lipohilic)

3.2. the presence of both regions on the emulsifier molecule allows them to orient themselves at the phase interface & lower the interfacial energy that leads to instability

3.3. emulsifier stabilise emulsions by means of monomolecular interfacial films & also by formation of steric and electrical barriers that prevent coalescence of the dispersed droplets

3.4. structure of emulsifier molecule

3.4.1. hydrophilic area

3.4.2. lipophilic area

4. Types of emulsifers

4.1. (a) nonionic

4.1.1. uncharged molecules relatively insensitive to effects of pH and salt content example: mono and diglycerides, sorbitan esters, sucrose esters, polysorbates, polyoxyethylene glycol oleates (all contain an OH functional group)

4.2. (b) anionic

4.2.1. posses a negative electrical charge example: stearoyl lactylates, diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), succinylated monoglycerides

4.3. (c) cationic

4.3.1. posses a positive electrical charge example: amine compounds

4.4. (d) amphoteric

4.4.1. posses both positive and negative charges example: various lecithins

5. High-lipophilic balance (HLB)

5.1. expresses the balance of size and strength of the hydrophilic (water loving or polar) and the lipophilic (oil loving or non-polar) groups on the emulsifer

5.2. HLB values used to describe the emulsifying properties of non ionic emulsifers

5.3. range of HLB

5.3.1. HLB of 3-6 : a good w/o emulsifier

5.3.2. HLB of 7-9 : a good wetting agent (can be used for w/o or o/w emulsifer)

5.3.3. HLB of 10-18 : a good o/w emulsifier

5.4. high HLB values (HLB > 10) indicate relatively more polar (hydrophilic) molecule

5.4.1. more lipophilic emulsifiers have HLB values from 1-10

6. Properties of some common food emulsifiers

6.1. (a) mon- & Di-glycerides

6.1.1. - most commonly used emulsifiers

6.1.2. - highly lipophilic with HLB values range from 1 to 10

6.1.3. -produced by transesterification of glycerol and triacylcerides

6.1.4. - used in bakery products, frozen desserts, icings, toppings and peanut butter

6.2. (b) Sucrose esters

6.2.1. - are the mono-, di- and tri- esters of sucrose with fatty acids

6.2.2. - usually with HLB values from 7 to 13

6.2.3. - Mono-esters have HLB > 16 for o/w emulsions

6.2.4. - Di-esters are good for w/o emulsion

6.2.5. - Tri-esters have HLB ~1

6.3. (c) Sorbitan esters

6.3.1. - Sorbitan monostearate is the only sorbitan ester approved for food use

6.3.2. - Produced by the reaction of sorbitol and stearic acid

6.3.3. - HLB = 4.7

6.3.4. - Used in conjunction with polysorbates in oil toppings, cake mixes, etc.

6.4. (d) Polisorbates

6.4.1. - Polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters

6.4.2. - Formed from the reaction of sorbitan esters with ethylene oxide

6.5. (e) Polysorbates 60

6.5.1. - Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate or TWEEN 60

6.5.2. - HLB = 14.9

6.5.3. - Sample applications include oil toppings, cake mixes, and cake icing

6.6. (f) Polysorbates 65

6.6.1. -Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate or TWEEN 65

6.6.2. - Permitted for use in ice cream, frozen custard, ice milk, etc.

6.7. (g) Stearoyl lactylates

6.7.1. - an example of ionic emulsifier

6.7.2. - Lactic acid ester of monoglyceride with sodium or calcium

6.7.3. - Form strong complex with gluten in starch

6.8. (h) Lecithin and derivatives

6.8.1. - an example of amphipilic emulsifiers

6.8.2. - rich in egg yolk (Derived commercially from soybeans)

6.8.3. - Widely used in baked goods, low-fat baked goods, chocolate, instant foods, confectionery products, and cooking spray

7. Application of emulsifiers (selected application)

7.1. (a Bread, rolls and buns)

7.1.1. i. dough conditioner / dough strengthening - emulsifiers that aid in development of less tacky, more extensible dough that are processed through machinery without tearing or sticking

7.1.2. ii. crumb softeners - Crumb softeners interact with the flour components in creating a longer lasting softness in the crumb of finished goods

7.2. (b) Confectionary product & coatings

7.2.1. - Emulsifiers are used primarily to inhibit bloom, stabilize gloss, & improve palatability

7.3. (c) Frozen dairy products (ice cream

7.3.1. - in ice cream, emulsifiers function as aerating agent and foam stabiliser

7.4. (d) Noodle & pasta

7.4.1. -Emulsifiers make a rigid complex with starch to protect starch granules and improve the quality of starchy foods

8. How to select an emulsifier

8.1. (a) consult Malaysian Food Act & Regulation (use only approved emulsifiers

8.2. (b) select an emulsifier after considering the functional requirements of the food system, the method of processing, and the form of the finished product

8.3. (c) consult the supplier for approximate usage levels and methods of incorporating the emulsifier into the food

8.4. (d) determine the HLB requirements for the food system – involves screening emulsifiers over a range of HLB values & several concentrations to determine approximate requirements – then verify through experimentation

8.5. (e) evaluate different combinations of two or more emulsifiers to determine which gives the most stable emulsion

8.6. (f) optimize the usage level of the emulsifier. If the level is too low, the emulsifier may not perform