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1. Food acids

1.1. (a) organic

1.1.1. carboxylic acid i. monocarboxlic acid acetic acid propionic acid lactic acid ii. dicarboxylic acid malic acid tartaric acid adipic acid fumaric acid iii. tricarboxylic acid citric acid

1.1.2. phenolic acid benzoic acid

1.1.3. fatty acid sorbic acid caprylic acid butyric acid

1.1.4. lactones ascorbic acid gluconolactone

1.1.5. amino acid

1.2. (b) inorganic

1.2.1. phosphoric acid

1.2.2. hydrochloric acid

1.2.3. sulfuric acid

2. General function

2.1. pH control agents

2.1.1. -To obtain certain pH range in product formulation,

2.1.2. - Buffering capacity -buffering is the ability of a weak acid/salt combination (e.g. citric acid and sodium citrate) to control the amount of free hydrogen ions -provides protection from pH- dependent effects like colour or flavour changes.

2.1.3. - Buffering is often needed to maintain acidic fermentation processes.

2.2. perservatives

2.2.1. -acid pH can stop growth or enhance the effectiveness of heat sterilization or the anti-microbial effect of solutes

2.2.2. - serve as anti-browning agents to maintain the normal flavour, colour & texture of several canned fruits and vegetables

2.3. chelating agents / antioxidants synergists

2.3.1. -Food acidulants (ex: citrates & phosphates, have the ability to form ring structures with metal ions, a process known as chelation.

2.3.2. - The chelating function of acidulants is useful in retarding the enzymic browning of fruits & vegetables

2.3.3. -Acidulants are used as synergists for antioxidants (e.g., BHA & BHT, ascorbates) in the preservation of fats & oils, and in food products containing fatty compounds.

2.4. flavour adjuncts

2.4.1. -acidulants add the tartness required to balance the excessive sweetness of these products (“brix acid ratio”)

2.4.2. - acetic acid gives a distinctive vinegar note

2.4.3. - citric acid gives a sharp, clean bite. The acid taste lingers with fumaric acid, but it dissipates quickly with citric

2.4.4. - the acidity of malic acid builds slowly, but then lingers

2.5. control of gelation & coagulation

2.5.1. - acidulants play a significant role in the gelation of pectin and algins

2.5.2. - for gelling high methoxyl pectin, the pH must be adjusted to 2.5 to 3.5.

3. Application

3.1. (a) beverages

3.1.1. 1. Citric acid is the first choice to be used as acidulant. The main reason is the specific, relatively mild to slightly sharp sourness and refreshing effect on most of fruit flavours.

3.1.2. 2. Malic acid is used when strong flavour enhancement is expected and mostly in combination with citric acid.

3.1.3. 3. Phosphoric acid is commonly used in “cola” type beverages to bring specific taste profile and strong effect on pH

3.1.4. 4. Succinic acid is used due to the legislation only in instant beverages for home preparation.

3.2. (b) confectionery

3.2.1. 1.Malic acid as well as fumaric acid provide more persistent sourness than other food acids at the same concentration.

3.3. (c) savoury food

3.3.1. 1.Succinic acid is used as a typical umami taste enhancer providing at low concentrations required taste impact.

4. Main acidulant

4.1. 1. Acetic acid (E260) – the most commonly known organic acid, naturally present in many fruits and fermented foods, found in vinegar .

4.2. 2. Citric acid (E330) - is a naturally occurring in many fruits organic acid (first isolated from lemon)

4.3. 3. Malic acid (E296) – is a naturally occurring in many fruits organic acid (first isolated from apples) and present in human metabolism (Krebs cycle),

4.4. 4.Fumaric acid (E297) – is a naturally present in live cells chemical compound (various fungi), produced also in human skin when exposed to sunlight

4.5. 5.Lactic acid (E270) is a naturally occurring in many fermented foods and human body organic acid (first isolated from sour milk), produced commercially by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substrates

4.6. 6.Tartaric acid (E334) is a naturally occurring in many fruits organic acid (first isolated from cream of tartar “wine stone”), produced commercially as a natural grade during wine production

4.7. 7. Succinic acid (E363) is a naturally-occurring dicarboxylic acid found in most fruit and vegetables.

4.8. 8. Phosphoric acid (E338) is an inorganic acidulant obtained by chemical reaction from phosphorus rock