Japan: Folk and Popular Culture Musuem

Amanda, Andrew, Ben and Brendan HuG Project using MindMeister

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Japan: Folk and Popular Culture Musuem by Mind Map: Japan: Folk and Popular Culture Musuem

1. Amanda: Music and Dance (Note: some videos may not show up, and if so they're externally linked through the arrow next to the text about them)

1.1. Music

1.1.1. Instruments

1.1.1.1. Shamisen

1.1.1.1.1. similar to a guitar, but with 3 strings

1.1.1.2. Shakuhachi

1.1.1.2.1. flute made of bamboo with 5 holes; played by blowing on one end

1.1.1.2.2. traditionally duets with a koto to play "Haru no Umi" as background music during New Year holidays (linked in case video doesn't show up)

1.1.1.3. Koto

1.1.1.3.1. large wooden instrument played with picks worn on the fingers

1.1.1.3.2. 13-stringed version came from China to Japan in Nara period (710-794)

1.1.1.3.3. traditional song, "Sakura, Sakura" during cherry blossom (sakura) season (linked)

1.1.1.4. Hayashi

1.1.1.4.1. instrumental ensemble used in nōgaku /noh theater along with yokyoku (vocal music)

1.1.2. Traditional Music (Hōgaku)

1.1.2.1. traditional Japanese music strongly influenced by music from China/Korea (instruments and styles)

1.1.2.1.1. Gagaku (court music)

1.1.2.2. often very instrumental, meditative, and ritualistic

1.1.2.2.1. music represents natural sounds through percussion, wind, and string instruments with sparse rhythm and no regular chords

1.1.2.3. Theatrical

1.1.2.3.1. Kabuki

1.1.2.3.2. Noh/Nōgaku (linked)

1.1.2.4. Shōmyō (linked)

1.1.2.4.1. Buddhist chanting of sutra set to melodic phrasing

1.1.3. Modern Music

1.1.3.1. late 19th-early 20th century, Japan opened to new genres

1.1.3.1.1. Ryūkōka

1.1.3.2. some music groups pay homage to traditional Japanese music today (often by using traditional instruments or costumes for new genres)

1.2. Dance

1.2.1. Traditional Dance Attire

1.2.1.1. often kimonos with other minimalistic garments in classical dance performances

1.2.1.2. in noh, extravagant costumes with masks

1.2.1.3. costumes vary based on the story being enacted in kabuki/nogaku

1.2.2. Early Dance History

1.2.2.1. Kagura (linked)

1.2.2.1.1. Shinto ritual/ceremonial dance originating from a famous Japanese myth (tells the tale of Amenouzume no Mikoto dancing to open a cave entrance and reveal the sun goddess, Amaterasu Ohmikami)

1.2.2.1.2. origins of dance in religion and mystical circles

1.2.2.2. Bugaku (linked)

1.2.2.2.1. ancient dance brought from China with Chinese and Korean music and brightly colored garments (usually in red, blue, or green) with detailed embroidery

1.2.2.2.2. performed at the Imperial Court of Japan; exclusively for nobility for a most of history

1.2.2.3. Sarugaku (linked)

1.2.2.3.1. entertainment for Japanese peasants/farmers (theater during 11th-14th century)

1.2.2.3.2. similar to a modern-day circus, incorporating acrobatics in dancing, often along with pantomime and juggling

1.2.2.4. Nohgaku (linked)

1.2.2.4.1. classical Japanese musical drama from pre-14th century based on tales from traditional literature

1.2.2.4.2. includes music, dance, and drama (noh) along with comical interludes (kyogen)

1.2.2.4.3. often a masked supernatural deity character

1.2.2.4.4. one of the biggest influences in Kabuki

1.2.3. More Modern Dance

1.2.3.1. Kabuki (linked)

1.2.3.1.1. rooted in ethnic dancing (ancient Okuni dance)

1.2.3.1.2. performed by prostitutes for generations (made illegal in the Edo era) but continued on to today

1.2.3.1.3. once simple, now full-out performance with theatrical elements and music

1.2.3.1.4. heavy makeup with paint and lots of shouting; mostly performed by men (even playing female characters)

1.2.3.2. after a period of isolation (Edo period), Meiji Restoration in 1868

1.2.3.2.1. young people in Japan looked to Western cultural forms like opera

1.2.3.2.2. opened the Imperial Theater (Teikoku Gekijo) in 1911, featuring Western-style musicals and operas

1.2.3.3. Butoh (linked)

1.2.3.3.1. post-World War II, dancers returned to Japan after studying modern dance in Germany

1.2.3.3.2. wanted a new form of expression through movement that maintained a cultural connection to Japan (as opposed to more Western-influenced performances which were more popular)

1.2.3.3.3. slow, hyper-controlled motions while distorting the face and body, focusing on moving in an organic way, featuring white body paint

1.2.3.4. Kinryu-no-Mai (Golden Dragon Dance)

1.2.3.4.1. holiday dance created in 1958 to celebrate the reconstruction of Kannondo, Sensoji's main hall

1.2.3.4.2. based on the story of the bodhisattva of mercy, Kannon, who in legend appeared as a golden dragon

1.2.3.4.3. features multiple dancers controlling a large dragon prop

2. Andrew: Art and Architecture

2.1. Art

2.1.1. Folk Art

2.1.1.1. Influences

2.1.1.1.1. China

2.1.1.1.2. Religion

2.1.1.1.3. Nature

2.1.1.1.4. Interconectedness

2.1.1.1.5. Inverse Influences

2.1.1.2. Paintings

2.1.1.2.1. Ukiyo-e Style

2.1.1.2.2. Yamato-e Style

2.1.1.2.3. Emakimono, "Paintings on The Scroll"

2.1.1.3. Woodblock prints

2.1.1.3.1. Ukiy-o style most commonly found in prints (originated during Edo Period)

2.1.1.3.2. Process - image drawn on paper, then applied to wood for carving

2.1.1.3.3. First appeared in 8th century

2.1.1.4. Bonsai and gardens

2.1.1.4.1. Zen gardens

2.1.1.4.2. Bonsai

2.1.1.4.3. Aesthetic of order and precision, reflect Buddhist and as a result, Japanese, ideals

2.1.1.5. Calligraphy

2.1.1.5.1. Art of ornate writing

2.1.2. Modern Art

2.1.2.1. Characteristics

2.1.2.1.1. Strong Western influences, some original styles remain

2.1.2.1.2. 1868 - Meiji Restoration

2.1.2.1.3. Landscapes still common, reflect natural connection

2.1.2.2. Examples

2.1.2.2.1. Yayoi Kusama

2.1.2.2.2. Taikan Yokoyama

2.1.2.2.3. Kiyoteru Kuroda

2.1.2.2.4. Technological applications

2.2. Architecture

2.2.1. Folk Architecture

2.2.1.1. Shrines

2.2.1.1.1. Torii gates

2.2.1.1.2. Shinto shrines have most spectacular architecture; Buddhist ideals more reflected in art

2.2.1.1.3. Design

2.2.1.2. Characteristics

2.2.1.2.1. Design

2.2.1.3. Homes

2.2.1.3.1. Urban Housing

2.2.1.3.2. Rural Homes

2.2.2. Modern Architecture

2.2.2.1. Westernization of architecture

2.2.2.1.1. Influence from Western architects like Le Corbusier

2.2.2.1.2. Initially Western architects and styles imported to Japan; Japanese architects later taught to implement popular Western designs

2.2.2.2. Legacy

2.2.2.2.1. Not until after WWII that Japanese architects are finally recognized internationally for work

2.2.2.2.2. Notable buildings from the 1920s and 30s in the International Style of modernism

2.2.2.2.3. Most important contributions remain Buddhist and Shinto shrine architecture

3. Brendan: Food and Holidays

3.1. Food and Etiquette

3.1.1. Food

3.1.1.1. many Japanese foods have folk roots and an origin story as to how it became part of current Japanese culture

3.1.1.2. Sushi

3.1.1.2.1. today, made from vinegar rice with fresh fish

3.1.1.2.2. originated in ancient times

3.1.1.3. Tempura

3.1.1.3.1. battered and fried fish, seafood and vegetables

3.1.1.3.2. special care given to the way ingredients are cut and temperature

3.1.1.4. Miso soup

3.1.1.4.1. made of either fish or kelp stock combined with bean paste

3.1.1.4.2. bring "umami" to meal (Japanese word meaning savory)

3.1.1.5. Soba

3.1.1.5.1. noodle dish made from buckwheat flour

3.1.1.5.2. eaten in Japan for centuries

3.1.1.5.3. often very healthy

3.1.1.6. Sashimi

3.1.1.6.1. predecessor to sushi

3.1.1.6.2. thinly sliced raw food

3.1.2. Etiquette

3.1.2.1. Seating

3.1.2.1.1. restaurants often have tatami floor with low tables and cushions

3.1.2.2. Eating

3.1.2.2.1. common to wait for everyone's order to begin eating

3.1.2.2.2. when eating from small bowls, often lifted towards mouth (larger dishes not picked up)

3.1.2.2.3. when sharing dishes, polite to use opposite end of chopsticks or serving chopsticks to move food

3.1.2.2.4. poor manners include blowing nose, burping, or chewing audibly

3.1.2.2.5. polite to eat all of your food and completely finish the dish

3.1.2.3. Drinking

3.1.2.3.1. do not begin drinking until everybody has received their drinks

3.2. Holidays

3.2.1. Kamakura Matsuri (Snow Hut Festival)

3.2.1.1. held annually, February 15-17

3.2.1.1.1. allows for cold weather and deep snow on the ground

3.2.1.2. originally to offer prayers to water god Suijin-sama for good rice harvest

3.2.1.3. features snow huts, or "kamakura"

3.2.1.3.1. the snow huts

3.2.1.3.2. the snow huts are built by the children of Yokote and surrounding towns

3.2.1.4. goods include rice cakes in the shape of cranes, turtles, and dogs

3.2.1.4.1. cranes and turtles symbolize longevity

3.2.1.4.2. the dogs, known as "innuko", are belived to be capable of warding off devils

3.2.2. Kinryu-no-Mai (Golden Dragon Dance)

3.2.2.1. every March 18 and October 18

3.2.2.2. based off of legend from 628 (folk story or oral history)

3.2.2.2.1. on March 18 of that year, two brothers found golden statue in Sumida River, when enshrined, a golden dragon was said to have flown across the sky

3.2.2.3. dancers control a 50-foot long dragon

3.2.2.3.1. touching the head of the dragon is said to be good luck

3.2.2.3.2. the dragon dance

3.2.3. Obon (Festival of Lanterns)

3.2.3.1. Japanese Buddhist festival

3.2.3.1.1. August 13 to 16

3.2.3.2. celebrates reunion of the living and spirits of the dead

3.2.3.2.1. keep memory of, acknowledge gratitude for, or pay respect to ancestors

3.2.3.2.2. in preparation, graveyards and homes cleaned, cemetery plots decorated

3.2.3.3. first day of Obon, bonfired and paper lanterns are lit and left in graveyards to light the path of spirits

3.2.3.4. final day of Obon, people place farewell food offerings in rice straw boats with tiny lit lanterns

3.2.3.4.1. are launched to guide the ancestors' spirits back to their world

3.2.4. Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival)

3.2.4.1. dolls in imperial costumes are displayed (to represent imperial court)

3.2.4.1.1. at least three steps of display

3.2.4.1.2. many dolls passed down generation to generation, establishing customs and traditions

3.2.4.1.3. the doll display

3.2.4.2. celebrated in homes with young girls, March 3

3.2.4.3. daughters play hostess and serve a miniature feast to the prince and princess

3.2.5. Hiroshima Peace Ceremony

3.2.5.1. annually on August 6, the day the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima

3.2.5.1.1. at 8:15am, the time the bomb was dropped, sirens blare and are followed by a moment of silence as tribute

3.2.5.1.2. at night, lit lanterns are floated on the Ota River to call for world peace

3.2.5.2. remembers the 60,000 killed and 75,000 injured

3.2.6. Oshogatsu

3.2.6.1. one of the most important holidays in Japan

3.2.6.2. celebrated December 31 to January 3 (for the new year )

3.2.6.3. honors the new year

3.2.6.3.1. 108 bell tolls, called Joya No Kane, symbolize 108 Buddhist sins or desires

3.2.6.3.2. people, dressed in fine clothing, visit shrines and temples to receive blessings of good luck

4. Ben: Literature and Dress

4.1. Literature

4.1.1. Folk Literature

4.1.1.1. Pillow Book

4.1.1.1.1. Written by Sei Shonagon, aristocratic woman

4.1.1.2. Characteristics

4.1.1.2.1. Focus on nature and daily life

4.1.1.2.2. Concise wording

4.1.1.2.3. Aristocratic viewpoint due to court-sponsored works and aristocrat poets

4.1.1.2.4. In-the-moment view, whether by slices of life poetry or zuihitsu (follow-the-brush) style

4.1.1.2.5. Inclusion of women, due to many aristocratic men writing in Chinese rather than Japanese

4.1.1.3. Kojiki - Record of Ancient Matters

4.1.1.3.1. The work was written in Chinese, as the written Japanese language was not developed at the time

4.1.1.3.2. Earliest known work of Japanese literature, written 712 CE

4.1.1.3.3. Sacred book in the Shinto religion

4.1.1.3.4. Details Shinto myths and legends, including the Shinto origin story, and includes records of Emperors

4.1.1.3.5. Commissioned by the Japanese emperor to preserve myths and history of Japan

4.1.1.4. Poetry: Renga, Tanka, and Haiku

4.1.1.4.1. Renga

4.1.1.4.2. Similar to haiku but with longer 5-7-5-7-7 syllable form

4.1.1.4.3. Tanka

4.1.1.4.4. Haiku

4.1.1.5. Folk Illustrations

4.1.1.5.1. Precursor to manga

4.1.1.5.2. Used both to tell historical events and folk stories

4.1.2. Modern Literature

4.1.2.1. Characteristics

4.1.2.1.1. Infusion of American Culture in the 1850s and 1940s

4.1.2.1.2. Perspective of nature inherited from Shinto beliefs

4.1.2.1.3. American themes of fast-paced action and societal commentary

4.1.2.2. Modern Haikus

4.1.2.2.1. Folk art form now known globally

4.1.2.2.2. Adopted by poets in Western cultures, poetry form still taught in schools

4.1.2.2.3. Tanka and renga forms have not remained in fashion to modern day

4.1.2.3. Manga

4.1.2.3.1. Popular comics originating from American cartoons and folk illustrations

4.1.2.3.2. Popular globally, animated for TV as "anime"

4.1.2.4. Novels

4.1.2.4.1. Similar to Western-style novels

4.1.2.4.2. Japanese author Kazuo Ishiguro won Nobel Prize for his work

4.2. Dress

4.2.1. Folk Dress

4.2.1.1. Kimono

4.2.1.1.1. Traditional japanese formal wear

4.2.1.1.2. Similar in function to button-down shirt as a base formal layer

4.2.1.1.3. Uses bright and colorful patterns

4.2.1.2. Yukata

4.2.1.2.1. Informal summer wear

4.2.1.2.2. Worn at summer festivals or fireworks

4.2.1.3. Geisha

4.2.1.3.1. Traditional Japanese entertainers that still exist today

4.2.1.3.2. Wear intricate traditional makeup, hair, dress, and headpieces

4.2.2. Modern Dress

4.2.2.1. School Uniforms

4.2.2.1.1. Inspired from older Western-style sailor and military uniforms

4.2.2.1.2. Uniforms part of stricter schooling style in Japan

4.2.2.1.3. Boys wear suits, ties, and slacks

4.2.2.1.4. Girls wear suits, bows, and skirts or slacks

4.2.2.2. Business Wear

4.2.2.2.1. Almost identical to Western formal wear

4.2.2.2.2. Black suit, slacks, with shirt and tie

4.2.2.3. Hawaiian Shirts

4.2.2.3.1. Japanese-American fusion

4.2.2.3.2. Most popular in America, not Japan

4.2.2.3.3. First created in the 1930s using kimono fabric

4.2.2.3.4. Resurged in popularity after World War II as soldiers stationed in Japan/Hawaii brought them home