Animals Systems - Callum

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Animals Systems - Callum by Mind Map: Animals Systems - Callum

1. Parts

1.1. Upper Respiratory

1.1.1. Upper Respiratory Nose and Mouth Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx Trachea Epiglottis A flap that prevents food from entering the lungs by blocking the glottis (opening of trachea) Pharynx Connects nasal and oral cavity to larynx Nasal Passage(nose Point of entry Filter, warm, and moistens air Mouth Warms and moistens air Tracea Passage of air into 2 bronchi, “windpipe”. Filter particles Larnyx Contains the vocal chords – for sound, aka “voice box”. Opening to lungs

1.2. Lower Respiratory

1.2.1. Lower Respiratory Bronchi Bronchioles Aveoli Pleural membrane Pleural Membrane Surrounds lungs and lines chest cavity Reduces friction between lungs and chest cavity Alveoli (singular: alveolus) Site of external respiration (gas exchange). ~150 million per lung! Very thin tiny sacs (large surface area). Diaphragm Increases and decreases volume of chest cavity Bronchiole Many branches carry air to alveoli Able to change diameter to regulate air flow Bronchus (plural: bronchi) One goes to each lung. Each carries air into lungs & splits into many bronchioles

2. Digestive System disorder

2.1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

2.1.1. IBD, - a group of diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines

2.2. Constipation

2.2.1. a condition where bowel movements are infrequent & body has difficulty passing stools

2.3. Cirrhosis

2.3.1. liver disease where scar tissues in the liver builds up & replaces healthy tissue

2.3.2. Associated with excess drinking

2.4. Hepatitis

2.4.1. virus that inflames the liver

2.4.2. the inflammation can affect its functions (processing nutrients, filtering blood, fighting infections, etc.)

2.5. Gallstones

2.5.1. Hardened deposits of bile that are formed in the gallbladder

2.6. Diabetes

2.6.1. body is not able to produce the hormone insulin in normal healthy amounts.


3.1. organs that take in food & liquids - break them down into substances body can use for energy, growth, & tissue repair


4.1. O2 from lungs combines with nutrients = energy.

4.2. Nutrients from digestive system provide food for cells.

4.3. Germ fighters (antibodies) help fight infection & disease.

4.4. Wastes carried to the liver & kidneys for removal from body.

4.5. CO2 waste is carried away & delivered to lungs for removal

4.6. Hormones from glands help regulate cell activity.

5. Human Body Systems

5.1. Circulatory system

5.1.1. ROLE Transports substances throughout the body Circulates O2, CO2 heat, water, nutrients, wastes

5.1.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS Heart, Arteries, Veins

5.2. Excretory System

5.2.1. ROLE Filters wastes from blood; maintains body's internal nutrient balances rids body of wastes via urethra

5.2.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS Kidneys, Urethra, Bladder

5.3. Digestive

5.3.1. ROLE Breaks down macromolecules and absorbs necessary nutrients

5.3.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS Stomach, Lg. & Sm. Intestines, S.I., Liver

5.4. Reproductive System

5.4.1. ROLE Producing offspring; regulating sexual characteristics

5.4.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS Testes, Uterus, Ovaries

5.5. Skeletal System

5.5.1. ROLE Provides body structure and support

5.5.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS bones, cartilage

5.6. Muscular System

5.6.1. ROLE allows for movement

5.6.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS skeletal muscle

5.7. Nervous System

5.7.1. ROLE Control system of body Stimulates heart rate and controls blood oxygen levels

5.7.2. MAIN ORGANS / PARTS Brain, Spinal cord, nerves

5.8. Integumentary System

5.8.1. ROLE Protects body Releases sweat, and heat from blood, to help control body temperature sensory reception

5.8.2. MAJOR ORGANS / PARTS skin, nails

5.9. Endocrine System

5.9.1. ROLE Circulates hormones around the body to control body functions; maintains homeostasis

5.9.2. MAJOR ORGANS / PARTS: Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenals, Pancreas, hypothalamus

5.10. Lymphatic System

5.10.1. ROLE help maintain circulatory system housing cells responsible for immunity

5.10.2. MAJOR ORGANS / PARTS Lymph nodes

5.11. Respiratory System

5.11.1. ROLE Ventilation system for body takes in O2 and releases CO2 from blood O2 CO2

5.11.2. MAJOR ORGANS / PARTS lungs, diaphragm, trachea

6. Medical Technologies

6.1. Endoscopes

6.1.1. surgeons don't have to open body

6.1.2. medical instrument to see inside body through small cut

6.2. Laser Therapy

6.2.1. medical treatment

6.2.2. uses strong beam of light to cut, burn or destroy tissue

6.3. Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRIs)

6.3.1. magnetic field & radio waves

6.3.2. produces detailed pics of body's organs & structures

6.3.3. safe & painless

6.4. CAT Scans

6.4.1. computerized tomography scan

6.4.2. computers & rotating X-ray machines to create cross-sectional images of body

6.4.3. more detailed than normal X-ray

6.4.4. show the soft tissues, blood vessels & bones

6.5. Nuclear Medicine

6.5.1. use of radioactive materials in diagnosis & treatment of disease.

6.6. Arthroscopic Surgery

6.6.1. minimally invasive surgical procedure

6.6.2. arthroscopic or keyhole surgery

6.6.3. arthroscope, an endoscope is inserted into the joint through small incision.

6.7. Ultrasounds

6.7.1. High-frequency sound waves

6.7.2. echoes are converted into a picture called a sonogram

6.7.3. view soft tissues & body cavities

6.7.4. non invasive techniques.

7. Circulatory System

7.1. Problems

7.1.1. Heart attack blockage of the flow of blood to the heart.

7.1.2. Stroke blood clots block vessels in brain, or from the rupture of a blood vessel.

7.1.3. Hypertension blood pressure is consistently higher than normal, which can lead to heart attack, stroke, or kidney failure.

7.1.4. Anemia iabnormally low level of hemoglobin, (protein that binds to oxygen in red blood cells.)

7.1.5. Leukemia disease where extra white blood cells are produced.

7.1.6. Hemophilia is a disease where blood plasma does not clot

7.2. Parts of the System

7.2.1. Heart Your heart pumps blood through two major pathways.

7.2.2. Blood Vessels Over 80,000 miles of blood vessels 3 Types arteries veins capillaries

7.2.3. Blood A mixture of solids in a large amount of liquid called plasma. 2 Types Red Blood Cells: carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide away from them. White Blood Cells:

7.3. How does it work

7.3.1. Pulmonary Circulation The flow blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.

7.3.2. Systemic Circulation Is the flow of blood to all the body tissues except the lungs.

7.3.3. BLOOD PRESSURE Systolic Pressure: heart contracts & pushes blood into arteries, HIGH blood pressure Diastolic Pressure: heart relaxes to refill, LOW blood pressure

8. Respiratory System

8.1. 4 Stages of Respiration

8.1.1. Breathing Inspiration moves air from otuside the body into lungs Expiration moves air from the lungs back t the outside of the body

8.1.2. External respiration exchange of gases between the lungs and blood such as O2 and CO2

8.1.3. Internal respiration exchange of gases between blood and cell tissue

8.1.4. Cellular Respiration What happens inside mitochondria

8.2. Human Respiration

9. Digestive System

9.1. PROVIDES Energy

9.1.1. Body cells need energy to run cell processes.

9.1.2. obtain chemical energy from food.

9.1.3. Food energy - measured in calories.

9.1.4. Supplies body with energy & raw materials for synthesis of chemical compounds.

9.1.5. Nutrients - part of growth, repair and mantinence of tissues


9.2.1. Lipids (fats) Lipids are energy dense fats, oils and waxes. They contain 9 calories per gram .

9.2.2. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a main source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose .

9.2.3. Proteins has amino acids, compounds and carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. . AMINO ACIDS

9.2.4. Minerals Sodium, potassium, zinc, iron, calcium,magnesium among the minerals that humans need. MICRONUTRIENTS

9.2.5. Vitamins vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K substances that our bodies need to develop & function normally

9.3. Types of digestion

9.3.1. Physical/Mechanical the act of breaking down food into smaller pieces using teeth (mastication), as well as contractions of the stomach.

9.3.2. Chemical enzymes and water break down food so that it can eventually be absorbed by body cells.

9.3.3. 4 Stages of digestion. #1:Ingestion food intake through mouth & down esophagus #2: Digestion food moves through & is broken down #3:Absobtion nutrients absorbed from food #4:Elimination wastes removed from body

9.4. Structure

9.4.1. Mouth Teeth Used for mechanical/physical digestion. They are necessary for breaking food into smaller particles Tongue Helps swallow (movement of food) Has taste buds. Strong muscle. Has taste buds.

9.4.2. Pharynx Swallowing (gag/swallow reflex) Divides food and air

9.4.3. Epiglottis Covers the trachea Protects / prevents food from entering the windpipe.

9.4.4. Esophagus a muscular tube connecting throat (pharynx) with stomach

9.4.5. Stomach Site of food storage and protein digestion J-Shape organ that can store up to 1.5 L of food

9.4.6. Small intestine helps to further digest food coming from the stomach. It absorbs nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins)

9.4.7. Large intestine more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine wider and shorter than the small intestine