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Flavour by Mind Map: Flavour

1. Definition

1.1. Property of a food or beverage that causes the simultaneous reaction of taste on the tongue and odor in the olfactory center of the nose

1.2. a collective sensory experience resulting from the combination of the four basic tastes (+umami ), aroma and physical factors.

2. Type of flavour

2.1. From natural flavoring substances ---Can be obtained naturally occurring plant material .Example herb and spices

2.2. Natural Flavour

2.2.1. Natural Sources

2.2.1.1. Vanilla

2.2.1.2. Aromatic Vegetable

2.2.1.3. Herbs and Spices

2.2.1.3.1. Contain high level in seasoning blend

2.2.1.3.2. Usually in the form of essentila oil or oleoresins

2.2.1.4. Reaction /Process Flavor

2.2.1.4.1. Can be obtained through two main reaction

2.2.1.5. Some flavours have one or a few dominant chemical components that carry the bulk of the taste- called character-impart compounds

2.2.1.5.1. e.g. Octyl acetate(ester)

2.2.2. Can be obtained through

2.2.2.1. Distillation

2.2.2.1.1. To obtain from plant sources

2.2.2.2. Concentration

2.2.2.2.1. Extract fruit juices

2.2.2.3. Biotechnology

2.2.2.3.1. Fermentation , enzyme modification

2.2.2.4. Extraction

2.2.2.4.1. To obtain from animal sources

2.3. Artificial Flavoring

2.3.1. Chemically synthesized , not found exist in nature

2.3.2. Only needed in small amount

2.3.3. Gives more strong impact

2.3.4. e.g. ethyl vanillin

2.4. Nature-identical flavoring

2.4.1. Obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes from a natural aromatic material and are identical to a substances present in natural products

3. Function of flavour in food

3.1. To mask the original flavor

3.2. To compensate for the flavor dissipated during processing

3.3. The form of the natural material may not permit it to be used in the finished products

3.4. economic factors may restrict the use of natural material

3.5. To impart characteristics flavor of the flavoring

3.6. Flavor Enhancer

3.6.1. A compound with no intrinsic flavor of its own but with the ability to enhance the perception of flavor

3.6.1.1. Yeast Extracts

3.6.1.2. Nucleotides

3.6.1.3. Hydrolyzed Plant and Vegetable Protein

3.6.1.4. Maltols and ethyl maltol

4. Classification of flavour

4.1. Fruit

4.1.1. Citrus

4.1.2. Non Citrus

4.2. Spice

4.2.1. Aromatic

4.2.2. Hot

4.2.3. Lachrymatory

4.3. Meat

4.3.1. Fish

4.3.2. Mammal

4.3.3. Fowl

4.4. Vegetable

4.4.1. Fresh

4.4.2. Dried

4.5. Empyreumatic

4.5.1. Smoky

4.5.2. Fried

4.5.3. Roasted

4.6. Strench

4.6.1. Fermented

4.6.2. Oxidized

5. Technical Problem with flavor

5.1. Flavor quality

5.2. Authenication/labeling/legality

5.3. Stability of concentrate/solution

5.4. Packaging

6. Disadvantages

6.1. high cost

6.2. flavour profile

6.3. flavour variation

7. Delivery systems for flavours

7.1. Solutions

7.1.1. Solutions in vegetable oils, animal fats

7.1.2. Water soluble

7.1.3. Oil soluble

7.1.4. Solutions in alcohol,propylene glycol,gylcerin

7.2. Solids

7.2.1. Encapsulated

7.2.1.1. e.g. encapsulated oleoresins & essential oils

7.3. Neat

7.3.1. e.g.fruit juice/concentrate, fruit in jam-making

7.4. Emulsions

7.4.1. Gum arabic,modified starch-stabilized

7.4.2. Emulsifier-stabilized