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1. Geography

1.1. Egypt is located in northeast Africa and is very isolated from other countries due to its geographical location. Its limits are: to the west, the Libyan desert; to the east, the Arabian desert; to the north the Mediterranean Sea and to the south the Ethiopian massif and the Nubian desert.

2. Religious Ideology

2.1. It is a polytheistic religion, but with a tendency to monotheism since each nomos (or small region) had a god that it worshiped mainly and then worshiped the others in a secondary way.

2.1.1. These divinities are represented as human figures with some symbols, although later some are syncretized. Sometimes they have the head of an animal and other times they are only represented with the animal form. There are two types of gods: Local gods: those of each nomos (for example, the God of Memphis is PTAH) Cosmic gods: much broader, for all norms. These include a triad that will be very important from the beginning: Geb, god of the earth, Nut, god of the sky, and Ra, god of the sun. Many demigods, who are multiplying. There are also sacred animals (not divine), which are treated with great respect and are mummified upon death.

3. Social Regime

3.1. The main objective of the life of the Egyptians was to serve the gods and the pharaoh, their representative on Earth to ensure the prosperity of all the people. Egyptian society was strongly hierarchical and divided.

3.2. THE PHARAOH The Egyptian king or pharaoh exercised absolute power over the state. He was political, religious, administrative, military and judicial chief. He considered himself a man-god; he was the link between the gods and humans. OFFICIALS THE PRIESTS THE SCRIBES FARMERS TRADERS AND CRAFTSMEN SLAVES

4. Sculpture

4.1. It emerges as a representation of the image as an element of survival. Its used to give the personality to the god or the deceased. Is used for the celebration of religious practices that the deceased requires for his pilgrimage or the offerings.

4.1.1. ROUND LUMP -All kinds of protrusions are avoided. -All th sculptures obey the principle or the law of frontality. They are very frontal sculptures, very symmetrical. -Great geometrization, the statue is articulated with horizontal and vertical planes -The most common materials are granite, basalt, limestone, wood, ivory. Especially the wooden and the limestone ones can have embedded materials, especially in the eyes, to give the sculpture more life. -The size is variable -Realism was use, are very truthful portraits of animals and of the pharaoh. -Calm and balanced attitude -They can be decorated with hieroglyphs on the clothes or on the base on which they rest, which allows the figure to be identified RELIEF – Polychrome use in low relief and is address to meet the contour of the figure (hole-relieve). – They show no effects of perspective. – All the figures are of the same size except the Pharaoh to emphasize their power. – Completive technique is used: (parts of the front, the bust and the eyes and parts of the head, legs and feet of the profile). – The compositions are always symmetrical and perfectly arranged symbolically. – Items ranging from everyday scenes and agricultural work to the great feats of the Pharaohs, always counted by selecting the main and most appropriate moments and counting in a horizontal row, one after the other as a narrative sequence. – Seeks to not leave any empty space (HORRO VACUI).

5. Art

5.1. The pictorial technique of the Egyptians was a precedent for fresco or tempera painting, since they made a colored paste from natural pigments, which they mixed with clay and dissolved with water to be able to apply it on the walls, lined with a layer of plaster.

5.2. Their main techniques were fresco, tempera, encaustic and sometimes also enamel in jewels, amulets, scarab, corresponding statuettes and tiles for interior walls. His colors were vivid and varied in each scene.

5.3. A typical feature of Egyptian painting is that the figures were drawn in profile, with only the trunk and the eyes facing the front. Another of its characteristics is the absence of perspective and theuse of flat colors, that is, without degrading or blurring.

5.4. The base dyes was: black, from charcoal white, lime or plaster, yellow and brickred, from natural desert ocher, green, from malachite blue, from lapis lazuli.

5.5. The paint was used to decorate the walls of temples and tombs, as well as to illustrate papyri.

6. Architecture

6.1. The ancient egyptians built their pyramids, tohbs, temples and palaces out of stone, the most durable of all building materials

6.1.1. -These building projects took a high degree of archltectural and engineering skill, and the -Organization of a large workforce consisting of highly trained craftsmen and labourers. -Most buildings were built of mud brick and limestone by levied workers. -Monumental buildings were built via the post and lintel method of construction and aligned astronomically. -Columns were typically adorned with capitals decorated.

6.1.2. MAIN CONSTRUCTIONS: Temples Pyramids Palaces Tombs Mastabas

7. Sumptuary

7.1. ARTS Ancient Egyptian art refers to art produced in ancient Egypt between the 31st century BC and the 4th century AD. It includes paintings, sculptures, drawings on papyrus, faience, jewelry, ivories, architecture, and other art media. It is also very conservative.

7.1.1. PAINTING -Egyptian paintings show a side view and a front view of the animal or person at the same time. -They didn't develop a sense of depth, and neither landscapes nor a sense of visual perspective are found, the figures rather varying in size with their importance rather than their location -Stone surfaces were prepared by whitewash, or if rough, a layer of coarse mud plaster, with a smoother gesso layer above. -Pigments were mostly mineral, chosen to withstand strong sunlight without fading. -After painting, a varnish or resin was usually applied as a protective coating -Were often made with the intent of making a pleasant afterlife for the deceased. -The themes included journey through the afterworld or protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld.

7.1.2. ARCHITECTURE -They used sun-dried and kiln-baked bricks, fine sandstone, limestone and granite. -Carved from stone, the columns were highly decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, texts, ritual imagery and natural motifs. -Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors were used to decorate Egyptian structures. -At the Luxor Temple, the columns are reminiscent of papyrus bundles, perhaps symbolic of the marsh from which the ancient Egyptians believed the creation of the world to have unfolded.

7.1.3. JEWELRY -They exhibited a love of ornament and personal decoration -Badarian burials often contained strings of beads made from glazed steatite, shell and ivory. -Jewelry in gold, silver, copper and faience is also attested in the early Predynastic period. -The combination of carnelian, turquoise and lapis lazuli had been established for royal jewelry. -The particular choice of materials depended upon practical, aesthetical and symbolic considerations. -Jewelry was replete with religious symbolism. It was also used to display the wealth and rank of the wearer.

7.1.4. HOW THEY SAW DEATH -In ancient Egypt spells, rituals, magnanimous tomb constructions and processes to embalm the dead were requested by all wealthy citizens who yearned to reach the kingdom of Osiris. -Also they believed that every human being had a physical body and a “ka”, the immaterial force that continued to live after the body has perished, equivalent to what we know as the soul. -The Ka of a person could need the same sustenance as a living being, entertainment and work tools, which is why the deceased were given all these things in their graves.