AIR POLLUTANTS

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AIR POLLUTANTS by Mind Map: AIR POLLUTANTS

1. What are herbicidies?

1.1. Herbicidies, aslo known as weedkillers, are chemicals to kill weeds(wild plants). It's 5 main types.

1.1.1. Aromatic Acid Compound

1.1.2. Amide Compounds

1.1.3. Phenolic Nitro Compounds

1.1.4. DinitroAnliline Compounds

1.1.5. Heterocyclic Compounds

2. NOx Gases

2.1. What is NOx gases?

2.1.1. When nitrogen is released during fuel combustion it combines with oxygen atoms to create nitric oxide (NO). This further combines with oxygen to create nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are referred to together as oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

2.2. Harmful effects of NOx gases?

2.2.1. Nitric oxide is not considered to be hazardous to health at typical ambient concentrations, but nitrogen dioxide can be. NOx gases react to form smog and acid rain as well as being central to the formation of fine particles (PM) and ground level ozone, both of which are associated with adverse health effects. Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant gas, which at high concentrations causes inflammation of the airways. Long term exposure can decrease lung function, increase the risk of respiratory conditions and increases the response to allergens. High levels of NOx can have a negative effect on vegetation, including leaf damage and reduced growth. It can make vegetation more susceptible to disease and frost damage. NOx also reacts with other pollutants in the presence of sunlight to form ozone which can damage vegetation at high concentrations.

2.3. How do they exist?

2.3.1. NOx is produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures. In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere as air pollution can be significant. NOx gases are formed whenever combustion occurs in the presence of nitrogen – in car engines; they are also produced naturally by lightning.

2.4. How can we decrease NOx emittion?

3. Herbicides

3.1. Alternatives for herbicidies

3.1.1. Hand weeding

3.1.1.1. This method is carried out by manually plucking the weeds. It's tiring and time consuming way to kill weed but it is effective. This method can be use for small areas like gobby garden but it is very hard to use for big fields.

3.1.2. Mulch

3.1.2.1. Mulch is applied to the substrate surface to create a physical barrier that inhibits weed seed germination and suppresses weed growth. They are very useful, they can finish weed problem also they may reduce water loss but like hand weeding they can't use in field

3.1.3. Others

3.1.3.1. In non-crop areas heat can be used to manage weeds.

3.1.3.2. Natural chemicals - soaps, oils, salts, etc.

3.1.3.3. Vinegar

3.1.3.4. Mustard seed meal

3.2. What is harmful effects of herbicidies?

3.2.1. There are numerous harmful effects that are connected to the use of herbicides. Herbicides can be toxic for humans and other living organisms, such as fish or any other wildlife that consume the herbicide infused plants. For humans, herbicides can cause serious diseases such as cancer. Longer exposure to herbicides can cause neurodegenative, reproductive and developmental changes, also respiratory effects.

4. Ozone-Nitrogen dioxide

4.1. what ıs the source of this pollutant? (Where does it come from?)

4.1.1. Ground level ozone is the main component of smog and is the product of the interaction between sunlight and emissions from sources such as motor vehicles and industry

4.2. Definition

4.2.1. Ozone is san inorganic molecule, and its chemical formula is O3. It is a pale blue gas with distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2 breaking down in the lower atmosphere to dioxygen.

4.3. What are the effects of it?

4.3.1. Irritation and inflammation of eyes, nose, throat and lower airways: coughing, sore and scratchy throat or uncomfortable feeling in chest

4.3.2. Reduced lung function: not able to breathe as deeply or vigorously as you normally would

4.3.3. Exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis

4.3.4. Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections

4.3.5. Can continue to damage lungs when symptoms have disappeared