Russian revolutions

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Russian revolutions by Mind Map: Russian revolutions

1. Effect

1.1. February revolution

1.1.1. Workers started to protest against the hunger and poverty, to which sailors and industry workers started to join, demanding the replacement of the Tsar and an end to the war.

1.1.2. When they got the orders to shoot, soldiers didn't want to and joined the protestors. They didn't want to show their support to the tsar anymore

1.1.3. Having lost the support of the army and under the advice of his army chiefs and ministers, the Tsar abdicated for himself and his son on 2 March 1917

1.2. October revolution

1.2.1. Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin was the leader of Bolsheviks and also led them during the October revolution. Later he'd appointed himself as leader of Russia

1.2.2. Leon Trotsky Trotsky directed the Soviet military forces. He later served as the Soviet commissar of foreign affairs (1917–18) and of war (1918–24)

1.2.3. The October revolution was more a coup (staatsgreep) than a revolution

1.2.4. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers’ soviets overthrew the Russian Provisional Government in Petrograd

1.2.5. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside

1.2.6. After taking over, the Bolsheviks promised 'peace, land, and bread' to the Russian people

2. Cause

2.1. Long term causes

2.1.1. Peasants: food shortage and conscription (diensplicht) Major part of the land was owned by nobles and clergy and these peasants worked as farmers on daily wages They were paid less and worked more and sometimes under debt, they were not even paid wages

2.1.2. Working class: terrible living conditions Most industries were owned by private industrialists. Though the government supervised factories’ working hours and wages of the workers, but still rules were broken Women workers were also paid less than men

2.1.3. Socialist parties forming The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists, who respected Marxist ideas But because of government policies, it had to operate secretly as an illegal organisation It set up a newspaper, mobilised workers and organised strikes. Bolsheviks, wanted to change via revolution, very aggresive Mensheviks, wanted to change via political change

2.2. Short term causes

2.2.1. War going very bad With little food, no ammunition or even proper uniforms, Russian soldiers began to mutiny in their thousands

2.2.2. Tsar Nicholas 2nd declares himself commander of army He thought everyone wanted war and defend the war, but that wasnt the case. The Tsar was a poor military leader and he was now blamed for every defeat. He had also left his wife, the German-born Tsarina Alexandra, in charge at home. The Tsarina was very unpopular and seemed to be under the control of the equally unpopular mystic Grigori Rasputin

2.2.3. Mass starvation, a lot of dead, finances in chaos, inflation Loss of agricultural land to the Germans + dead farmers -> mass starvation 1916-1917