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Copy of Grammar Concepts by Mind Map: Copy of Grammar Concepts
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Copy of Grammar Concepts

Determiners

ADAPTED FROM : http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-determiners.php

Determiners are followed by a noun.

e.g:, The man., This fruit., Some children.

Subject pronouns ( I , you , he , etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, etc.) cannot be determiners because they can never be followed by a noun.

TYPES OF DETERMINERS

ARTICLES, Basically, articles are either definite or indefinite. They combine to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun., INDEFINITE, 'a' or 'an', is used when we don't specify the things or people we are talking about, e.g:, I met a friend., I have a dog., I borrowed a pencil from a passenger sitting next to me., The indefinite article 'a' is used before a consonant sound., e.g:, a pillow, a boy, a book, The indefinite article 'an' is used before a vowel sound, e.g:, an apple, an orange, an elephant, DEFINITE, 'the', is used when the speaker talks about a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know., e.g:, The model is not pretty., The doctor is not here., The book was interesting., When we speak of someting or someone for the first time we use a or an, the next time we repeat that object we use the definite article the., e.g:, I watched a movie. The movie was very good., I saw her cat. The cat is very cute., She read a book. She did not like the book., NO ARTICLE, Do not use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "The United States"., e.g:, He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier., They live in Northern British Columbia., They climbed Mount Everst., We do not normally use an article with plurals and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general., e.g:, He writes books., He eats broccoli., She hates noodles., Countable and uncountable nouns, 'The' can be used with uncountable nouns, or the article can be dropped entirely ., e.g:, "The two countries reached the peace after a long desastrous war" (some specific peace treaty), OR, "The two countries reached peace after a long desastrous war" (any peace)., It is unusual to use a/an for uncoutable nouns. You can't say "I'd like a milk", a/an can be used only with countable nouns., e.g:, Give me a piece of cake., I want to read a book., I ate an apple.

QUANTIFIERS, A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity., Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns., e.g, There are some books on the desk., There are many children there, How much money have you got?, With UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS, much, a little / little / very little*, 'little'and 'very little' mean that there is not enough of something. 'a little' means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough., a bit (of), a great deal of, a large amount of, a large quantity of, With COUNTABLE NOUNS, many, a few / few / very few *, 'few' and 'very few' mean that there is not enough of something. 'a few' means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough., a number (of), several, a large number of, a great number of, a majority of, With BOTH, all, enough, more / most, less / least, no / none, not any, some, any, a lot of, lots of, plenty of

DEMONSTRATIVES, Demonstratives are words that show which person or thing is being referred to., In this sentence: This is my brother, 'this' is a demonstrative, THIS, 'This' modifies or refers to singular nouns that are near to the speaker., THAT, 'That' modifies or refers to singular nouns that are far from the speaker., THESE, 'These' modifies or refers to plural nouns that are near to the speaker., THOSE, 'Those' modifies or refers to plural nouns that are far from the speaker., Demonstrative pronouns vs demonstrative adjectives, A distinction must be made between demonstrative adjectives (or demonstrative determiners) and demonstrative pronouns (or independent demonstratives)., A demonstrative adjective modifies a noun:, This apple is good. I like those houses. ('This' modifies 'apple' and 'those' modifies 'houses'), A demonstrative pronoun stands on its own, replacing rather than modifying a noun., This is good. I like those. ('This' and 'those' don't modify any nouns they stand alone and replace other nouns), Use of demonstratives, Demonstratives differ according to:, distance: near or far,, or quantity: singular or plural.

POSSESSIVES, Possessive adjectives - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their - modify the noun following it in order to show possession., e.g:, I'll get my bag., I lent him your book., Possessive adjectives are often confused with possessive pronouns., e.g:, Your bike is blue. ('your' is an adjective which modifies 'bike'), Mine is yellow. ('mine' is a pronoun which functions as the subject of the verb is), THINGS TO REMEMBER, Possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns., This is your (possessive adjective) book and this is mine (possessive pronoun)., 'its' and 'their' are possessive adjectives., e.g:, Its color is beautiful., Their car is in their garage., Its name is MoMo., 'it's', 'they're' and 'there' are not possessive adjectives — its is a contraction of 'it is' or 'it has'; 'they're' is a contraction of 'they are'; 'there' is an adverb of place., e.g:, It's not my book. = It is not my book., It's not here. = It is not here., They're outside. = They are outisde.

Categories of Synthesis

Synthesis means the combination of a number of simple sentences into one new sentence – simple, compound or complex.

By using a participle, e.g:, She delivered a performance. It was stunning. Sentence Structure:.......stunning............., Ans: She delivered a stunning performance., WHY ?, In the question, the performance was described as stunning. So the word 'stunning' is used to describe the performance. Who delivered the stunning performance. ' She' did. So the answer is: She delivered a stunning performance.

By using a noun or a phrase in apposition, First, you must know what an apposition is: Placing side-by-side two coordinate elements (noun phrases), the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first., Midas was a greedy king. He lived to regret his greed., Ans: Midas, a greedy king, lived to regret his greed., WHY ?, The first sentence was used to describe what kind of king Midas was. He was a greedy king. The first sentence was extra information on Midas. So what serves as an explanation or modification of the first sentence ? He lived to regret it. So the answer is : Midas, a greedy king, lived to regret his greed., Adapted from: http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/appositionterm.htm

By using a preposition with a noun or gerund, First, you must know what a gerund is: the use of a verb (in its -ing form) as a noun (for example, the verb "learning" in the sentence "Learning is an easy process for some")., Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerund, He has failed many times. He still hopes to win. Sentence structure: Having......, Ans: Having failed for many times, he still hopes to win., WHY ?, So he has failed many times but he still hopes to win. So having done what ? Having failed many times..... He still hopes to win. You don't change anything in the second sentence. So when you combine the two sentences, the answer will be : Having failed many times, he still hopes to win.

By using the nominative absolute construction, A 'nominative absolute' is a term that is sometimes used for an absolute clause. An absolute clause is is an adverbial clause that has its own subject + a participle as a verb., Adapted from: http://www.englishforums.com/English/AbsoluteNominativeParticiple-Construction/vkpqw/post.htm, e.g:, The dinner having been prepared, I took a nap before my guests arrived., 'The dinner' is the subject of the phrase. Contrast 'Having prepared dinner, I took a nap before before my guests arrived'. Here, the subject of the phrase is understood to be identical with the main subject, 'I'.

By using an infinitive, First, you must know what an infinitive is: a verbal--usually preceded by the particle to--that can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb., We went to the theater. We saw a movie there., Ans: We went to the theater to see a movie., WHY ?, What was the purpose of you going to the theater? To see a movie. So you went to the theater to see a movie. If you combine the two sentences using an infinitive, the answer will be: We went to the theater to see a movie., Adapted from: http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/infinterm.htm

By using an adverb or adverbial phrase, e.g:, They will come. That is certain. ANS:They will certainly come., WHY?, What was certain? Their arrival was certain.So certain is going to be changed into an adverb to describe the verb ' come'. So the answer is: They will certainly come.

Sentences adapted from : http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/synthesis-sentences-2/ except for ' By using the nominative absolute construction'

Present Tense

ADAPTED FROM www.englishpage.com

Simple Present Tense

FORM [VERB] + s/es in third person

USE 1-Repeated Actions, is used to express an idea that an action is repeated or usual., The action can be a habit , hobby, a daily event or something that usually happens., e.g:, She plays tennis., He never forgets his wallet., The train leaves every morning at 8am.

USE 2-Facts or Generalizations, can also indicate that the speaker also believes that a fact was true before,is true now and will be true in the future., it does not matter if the fact is true or not., Present Tense is also used to make generalizations about people or things., e.g:, Cats like milk., Birds do not like milk., New York is a small city ., * It doesn't matter if the fact is not true.

USE 3-Scheduled Events in the Near Future, is used occasionally by speakers to talk about scheduled events in the near future., this is commonly done when talking about public transportation but can be used with other scheduled events as well, e.g:, The train leaves tonight at 6pm., When do we board the plane ?, The party starts at 8 o'clock.

USE 4-Now (Non-Continuous Verbs), is used by speakers to express an idea that something is happening or not happening now, e.g:, I am here now., He needs help right now., He has his passport in his hand.

Present Continuous Tense

FORM [am/is/are + present participle]

USE 1-Now, is used with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening at this very moment or not happening now., e.g:, You are learning English now., You are not swimming now., Why aren't you doing your homework ?, To find out what Normal Verbs are, go to this website, http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/types.html

USE 2-Longer Actions in Progress Now, In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on., Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress., ;however, we might not be doing it at this second., e.g:, I am studying to become a doctor., Are you working on any special projects at work?, I am not studying to become a dentist.

USE 3- Near Future, Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future., e.g:, I am meeting some friends after work., I am not going to the party tonight., Isn't he coming with us tonight?

USE 4 -Repetition and Irritation with "Always", The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens., Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present, but with negative emotion., Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing.", e.g:, She is always coming to class late., He is constantly talking. I wish he would keep quiet., I don't like them because they are always complaining.

Present Perfect Tense

FORM [has/have + past participle]

USE 1-Unspecified Time Before Now, We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. important., The exact time is not important., You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as, :yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc., We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as:, ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc., e.g:, I have seen that movie twenty times., Have you read the book yet?, People have traveled to the Moon.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

FORM [has/have + been + present participle]

USE 1-Duration from the Past Until Now, We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now., "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous., e.g:, They have been talking for the last hour., What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes ?, We have been waiting here for over two hours!

USE 2-Recently, Lately, You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks"., Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately"., We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning., e.g:, Recently, I have been feeling really tired., He has been avoiding me lately., Have you been exercising regularly ?

Spelling Errors

Adapted from http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/common-misspellings Go to this website for more misspelled words and spelling advice.

We learn British English

Here are some of the commonly misspelled words, 1. across is misspelled as accross, 2. bizarre is misspelled as bizzare, 3. calendar is misspelled as calender, 4. environment is misspelled as enviroment, 5. forty is misspelled as fourty, 6. government is misspelled as goverment

Spelling advice, They go by the numbers, 1. one c, 2.one z, double -r, 3.-ar not -er, 4.n before the m, 5.begins with for-, 6.n before the m

Take note that there are more commonly misspelled words than these

Past Tense

ADAPTED FROM http://www.englishpage.com

Simple Past Tense

FORM [VERB+ed] or irregular verbs, To find out more about irregular verbs,go to this website: http://www.englishpage.com/irregularverbs/irregularverbs.html

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now, We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now., "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous., e.g:, They have been talking for the past hour., I have been classmates with her for three years., I have been playing computer games for five hours.

USE 2-A Series of Completed Actions, We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past., These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on., e.g:, I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim., I went home, ate dinner and did my homework., I watched television, took a bath, changed into the tuxedo and went to the wedding.

Past Continuous Tense

FORM [was/were + present participle]

USE 1-Interrupted Action in the Past, Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted., The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time., e.g:, I was watching television when she called., I was doing my homework when the door bell rang, She was cooking when she heard the weird noise.

USE 2-Specific Time as an Interruption, In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption., e.g:, Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner., Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work., At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.

USE 3- Parallel Actions, When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel., e.g:, I was studying while he was making dinner., I was eating while he was reading., I was studying while he was playing computer games.

USE 4-Atmosphere, In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past., e.g:, When I entered the classroom, students were running around, some were talking and the monitor was shouting for everyone to settle down. One student was yelling at another to keep quiet. Others were minding their own business.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always", The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past., To find out more about "used to" go to this website: http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/usedto.html, The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing.", e.g:, He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone., He was always picking on weak students., She was always coming to class late.

Past Perfect Tense

FORM [had + past participle]

USE 1-Duration from the Past Until Now, The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past., e.g, I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet., She only understood the movie because she had read the book., I did not do my homework because I had forgotten to do it.

USE 2-Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs), With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past., e.g, We had had that car for ten years before it broke down., By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years., They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

FORM [had been + present participle]

USE 1- Duration Before Something in the Past, We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past., "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous., Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past., e.g:, They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived., She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business., Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.

USE 2- Cause of Something in the Past, Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect., e.g:, Jason was tired because he had been jogging., He failed in the test because he had not been studying., Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.

Future Tense

ADAPTED FROM http://www.englishpage.com

Future Tense

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future., BE GOING TO FORM, [am/is/are + going to + verb], WILL FORM, [will+verb], USE 1-"Will" to Express a Voluntary Action, "Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help., We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something., e.g:, I will send you the information when I get it., I will not go to the party., Will you go away !, USE 2-"Will" to Express a Promise, "Will" is usually used in promises., e.g:, I will promise not to tell her the secret., I will be careful., I won't tell anyone your secret., USE 3-"Be going to" to Express a Plan, "Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not., e.g:, I am going to her house tomorrow., She is going to scream at him., They are going to beat him., USE 4-"Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction, Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future., In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning., e.g:, The year 2222 will be a very interesting year., The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.

Future Continuous Tense

Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable., WILL FORM, [will be + present participle], BE GOING TO FORM, [am/is/are + going to be + present participle], USE 1-Interrupted Action in the Future, Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time., e.g:, I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives., She will be in school when you come back from Australia., I will be at home when you go out., USE 2-Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future, In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption., e.g:, Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner., I will be in the process of eating dinner., At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert., We will be in the process of driving through the desert., REMEMBER In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action., USE 3- Parallel Actions in the Future, When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel., e.g:, I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner., I will be going to the concert and she will be going to the movies., Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time., USE 4-Atmosphere in the Future, In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future., e.g:, When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable., WILL FORM, [will have + past participle], BE GOING TO FORM, [am/is/are + going to have + past participle], USE 1-Completed Action Before Something in the Future, The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future., e.g:, By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house., When she gets back, I am going to have finished this test., I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock, USE 2-Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs), To find out more about Mixed Verbs, go to this website: http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/types.html, To find out more about Non-Continuous Verbs, go to this website: http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/types.html, With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future., e.g:, By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week., I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave., Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable., WILL FORM, [will have been + present participle], BE GOING TO FORM, [am/is/are + going to have been + present participle], USE 1-Duration Before Something in the Future, We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous., Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future., e.g:, She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes., They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives., James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia., USE 2-Cause of Something in the Future, Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect., e.g:, Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour., Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.