Biological Development

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Biological Development by Mind Map: Biological Development

1. Psychosocial Effects of Early and Late Puberty

1.1. Adolescence that mature early or late looks different from most peers their age and are often treated differently by others.

1.2. Boys and girls who matures early or late are most likely to show anxiety or depressed mood than their peers.

1.2.1. Early maturing boys tend to feel more confident, popular, school leaders and athletic.

1.2.2. Early maturing girls tends to feel less positive about themselves.

1.2.3. Late maturing boys tend to experience more difficulties socially and emotionally.

1.2.4. Late maturing girls have a protective effect regarding depression.

2. Brain Development in Childhood

2.1. The brain reaches 90% of its adult weight at age of 5.

2.2. Myelination is where the glial cells produce and coat the axons with fatty myelin to speed up the transmission of neural impluses.

3. Behavioural Genetics

3.1. It is the field of study thats hows how our genes and experiences combine to influence our traits, abilities and behaviour.

3.2. Genotype is a biological influence on all of our traits.

3.3. Phenotype is the observable physical and behavioural characteristics.

3.4. Traits that are influenced by genetics van be modified by physical and social interventions.

4. Brain Development in Infancy

4.1. A newborn's brain starts at 25% of its adult weight which grows throughout infancy and reaches 80% by 2 years of age.

4.2. The first three years of life are the most important for neural development

5. Experience and Brain Development

5.1. Studying animals helped us to know more about out brain development.

5.2. Our life experiences affects the structure of our brain physically.

5.3. Experience has two roles in our brain development

5.3.1. Experience-expectant brain development

5.3.2. Experience-dependent brain development

6. Neuron

6.1. Our brain is made up of billions of neurons which processes and transmits information. Neurons communicate with sensory cells and motor cells.

6.2. The structure of neurons contains dendrites, axon, synapses, cell body

7. Hemispheric dominance

7.1. Is where one hemisphere is more stronger and adept than the other.

7.2. The left hemisphere is usually more dominant than the right hemisphere.

8. Brain Development in Adolescence

8.1. Increase sex hormones due to puberty

8.2. Different parts of the brain develops that are responsible for "typical"adolescent behaviour.

8.3. Adolescents' brains become larger, faster and more efficient.

9. Patterns of Growth

9.1. There are two patterns of growth during the prenatal period and infancy.

9.1.1. Cephalocaudal development

9.1.2. Proximodistal development

10. Growth in Infancy

10.1. Genetics and environmental factors can cause some children to grow at a different rate than others.

10.2. An infant or toddler can grow up yo one quarter of an inch overnight.

10.3. Infants and toddlers grow faster during their first three years.

11. Growth in early and Middle Childhood

11.1. Growth slows down during early childhood.

11.2. Growth continues to slow in middle childhood.

11.3. Physical growth often comes with pain caused by the stretching and molding of muscles.

12. Biological and Contextual Influences on Growth

12.1. Genes influences the rate of growth.

12.2. Children with growth hormone deficiencies grows slower but with the right supplement it can stimulate their growth.

12.3. Growth can be influenced by health and environmental factors, especially nutrition.

13. Physical Development in Adolescence

13.1. Puberty is considered as the biological marker of adolescence

13.2. Testosterone are produced much higher in boys

13.3. Estrogen are produced much higher in girls.

14. Growth in Adolescence

14.1. Growth spurt last about two years but the body continues to grow.

14.1.1. During this stage, sex differences in body shape emerges.

14.2. Adolescents' body becomes taller and heavier before their muscles grow stronger and their internal organs mature.

15. Primary and Secondary Sex Characteristics

15.1. The most noticeable signs of pubertal malnutrition is secondary sex characteristics.

15.2. Primary sex characteristics are less noticeable but the most important change in puberty.

15.3. Girls sexual maturity is marked by the onset of menstruation.

15.4. Boys sexual maturity is marked by the growth of testes.

16. Biological and Contextual Influences on Pubertal Timing

16.1. Adolescents vary in their level of physical maturation.

16.2. Biology, social context, environment, social timing, and physical health plays a strong role in pubertal timing.

16.3. Adequate nutrition is needed to support the changes that young people experience.

17. Gene-environment Interactions

17.1. Genes and environment work together to determine our characteristics.

17.2. Heredity and environment are powerful influences on development.

17.2.1. Gene-environment correlation refers to the idea that many of our trait correlates with our genes and environment.

17.2.2. There are three types of gene-environment correlation Passive Parents create homes that reflect their own genotypes. Reactive Child's genetic traits are influenced by the social and physical environment. Active Children shapes their own development.

17.3. Extreme experiences or changes in the environment can prevent developmental sequence.

17.4. Heavily canalized traits can be influenced by contextual factors.

18. Epigenetic Framework

18.1. Genes provide a blueprint for characteristic to develop but depends on environmental circumstances.

18.2. Epigenetics influences genetic expression.

18.3. Epigenetic mechanisms determine how genetic instructions are carried out t determine the phenotype.

19. Prenatal Development

19.1. Conceptions marks the beginning of prenatal development.

19.2. Takes place in several stages

19.2.1. During the germinal period, the zygote begins cell division travelling to the fallopian tube for fertilization occurs toward the uterus. Occurs in the first 2 weeks after conception.

19.2.2. During the embryonic period, all of the organs and major body systems forms. Occurs in 3 to 8 weeks after conception.

19.2.3. During the fetal period, the fetus grows rapidly where the organs begins to function. Occurs in 9 weeks to birth.

19.3. Childbirth progress in three stages.

19.3.1. Dilation

19.3.2. Delivery

19.3.3. Delivery of the placenta

20. Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development

20.1. Teratogen is an agent that causes damage to prenatal development

20.1.1. There are four principles of teratology Critical periods Dose Individual differences Teratogens show complicated effects on development.

20.1.2. Types of teratogens Driugs Alcohol Amphetamines Antibiotics Barbiturates Cocaine Heroin Lithium Marijuana Tobacco Maternal Illness HIV/AIDS Rubella Environmental pollutants Lead and mercury Radiation