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Module Two by Mind Map: Module Two

1. Chapter 2

1.1. Behavioural Genetics

1.1.1. examines the way genes and experience combine to influence the diversity of human traits

1.2. Methods of Behavioural Genetics

1.2.1. Heritability - the extent of how variations among people with given characteristics vary due to genetic differences

1.3. Gene-Environment Interactions

1.3.1. The dynamic connection between gene and our own environments

1.3.2. Range of Reflection: - responding to the environment in unique ways - genotypes = boundaries on the range of phenotypes - phenotypes = response to different environments

1.4. Canalization

1.4.1. - Wide or narrow reaction range - Only changed by powerful environmental forces - eg. undeveloped motor skills – forms of neglect, environmental deprivation

1.5. Gene-Environmental Correlations

1.5.1. Many traits supported by both genes and environments

1.5.2. 3 types: - Passive - Reactive - Active

1.5.2.1. Passive - Parents may pass down predisposed genes of musical ability and create musical environments and opportunities

1.5.2.2. Active - child actively pursues experiences

1.5.2.3. Reactive - genetic traits that influence social and physical environment

1.6. Prenatal Development

1.6.1. Germinal period (first 2 weeks)

1.6.1.1. - 4 days = blastocyte - 6-11 days implantation - placenta develops

1.6.2. Embryonic Period ( 3 - 8 weeks)

1.6.2.1. - embryonic organs and body systems form - ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

1.6.3. Fetal Period ( 9 weeks to birth)

1.6.3.1. - appearance of bone - limb movement - final development stages of body organs and organ systems

1.7. Apgar Scale

1.7.1. - Appearance (color) - Pulse - Grimace (reflex) - Activity (muscle tone) - Respiration (breathing)

1.8. Teratogens

1.8.1. Alcohol

1.8.1.1. - Leading cause of developmental disabilities - FAS – physical and development defects

1.8.2. Cigarette Smoking

1.8.2.1. - may cause heart defects - lung problems - SIDS

1.8.3. Marijuana

1.8.3.1. - effect fetal growth - no clear side effects but still not advised

1.8.4. Cocaine + Heroin

1.8.4.1. - born with addiction - poor motor skill and development - normally also exposed to many substances -

1.9. Maternal Illness

1.9.1. STIs

1.9.1.1. - can be passed through birth canal

1.9.2. Rubella

1.9.2.1. - can cause blindness, deafness, heart defects

1.10. Environmental Hazards

1.10.1. - Exposure to chemicals, radiation, pollution - Heavy Metals - Can cause genetic mutations

1.11. Maternal Age

1.11.1. Late age Pregnancy - greater risk for complications - risk of down syndrome increase after age 40

2. Chapter 3

2.1. Infancy and Childhood

2.1.1. Patterns of Growth

2.1.1.1. Cephalocaudal Development

2.1.1.1.1. Growth Proceeds from the head downward – lower regions of body develop after upper regions

2.1.1.2. Proximodistal Development

2.1.1.2.1. Centre of body outward

2.1.2. Growth in Infancy

2.1.2.1. - Growth norms – expectations for typical gains and weight and height variations - Growth in spurts; fastest within first 3 years

2.1.3. Growth in Early/Middle Childhood

2.1.3.1. - Growth slows, but adds up little by little - Growth is an important indicator of health

2.1.4. Biological and Contextual Influences on Growth

2.1.4.1. Hormones - influence cells - growth hormones secreted since birth

2.1.4.2. Influences by Nutrition

2.2. Physical Development in Adolescence

2.2.1. Growth

2.2.1.1. Puberty - increased level or Testosterone and Estrogen

2.2.1.2. Rapid height growth - Girls: age 10 - Boys: age 12

2.2.1.3. Rapid growth in muscles and bone

2.2.1.4. - Hypothalamus - Adrenal Glands

2.2.2. Primary and Secondary Characteristics

2.2.2.1. Girls - Menstruation - breast formation - pubis hair

2.2.2.2. Boys - testes growth - pubic hair - first ejaculation

2.2.3. Biological and Contextual Influences on Pubertal Timing

2.2.3.1. - Genes influence pubertal timing - Greater body mass - Adequate nutrition - Exposure to stress - Socioeconomics

2.2.4. Psychosocial Effects of Early and Late Puberty

2.2.4.1. Early Maturation - girls: before age 8 - boys: before and 9

2.2.4.1.1. Late Maturation - girls: after age 13 - boys: after age 14

2.2.4.2. - Treated differently by peers and adults - show anxiety and depression - body image issues - low self esteem -

2.3. Physical Changes in Adulthood

2.3.1. Changing Appearance

2.3.1.1. - Skin is less elastic - thinning skin - loss of fat, visible blood vessels

2.3.2. Body Shape, Muscle and Bone

2.3.2.1. - Gradual muscle decline at age 30 - Exercise helps maintain strength

2.3.2.2. - Gradual loss in bone density

2.3.3. Reproductive Change in Women

2.3.3.1. - Difficulty conceiving - Menopause = ~age 51

2.3.4. Reproductive Changes in Men

2.3.4.1. - Declines in testosterone - Quality of sperm declines

3. Chapter 4

3.1. The Neuron

3.1.1. - Process specialized information & communicate to sensory cells

3.2. Experience and Brain Development

3.2.1. - Under stimulation = cognitive deficits

3.2.2. Experience-Expectant Brain Development

3.2.2.1. Brain relies on basic event and stimuli to develop normally

3.2.3. Experience-Dependent Brain Development

3.2.3.1. Brain response to learning experiences - based on contextual and cultural circumstances

3.3. Brain Development in Infancy

3.3.1. Stimulation and experience are important to maximize neural connections and development in brain

3.4. Brain Development in Childhood

3.4.1. - 90% of adult wait of brain by 5yrs old - Brain grows in spurts - Brain becomes specialized for different functions - Show preference for dominant hand

3.5. Brain Development in Adolescence

3.5.1. - Puberty stimulates neurological development - Brain function strengthens - Development in Limbic system

3.6. Brain Development in Adulthood

3.6.1. - Decline in function and judgement - Myelin loss = cognitive decline - Decline in sensory region