Laughter Out of Place Chapters 2 and 3

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Laughter Out of Place Chapters 2 and 3 by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place Chapters 2 and 3

1. Goldstein

1.1. Class

1.1.1. One cannot belong to elite/middle class without domestic workers. The more one has (nanny, cook, chauffer) the more economic/social prestige that person exhibits (p. 68).

1.1.2. Dependance on someone else becomes a positive form of status and prestige (p.68)

1.1.3. Members who have domestic workers and have always had them do not really know how to do basic chores (clean, cook, laundry) for themselves (p.68).

1.1.4. Most domestic work done by Afro-Brazilian women at the very bottom of a series of interlocking economic social hierarchies (p. 69).

1.1.5. Gross poverty alongside showcases of wealth - people of all ages begging for money and food (p. 70).

1.1.6. Poverty is conceptualized as a class problem rather than a race problem (p. 105).

1.1.7. Class is a recognizable discourse that associates domestic work with dark skin, dark skin with slavery, dirt, ugliness and low social standing (p. 73)

1.1.8. The presence ot the "low Other" reminds the middle and upper classes of what it is they strive not to be. The middle and upper classes need this "low Other" in order to know who they are (p. 87).

1.1.9. In middle/upper class apartment buildings, lower class must use the service entrance/elevators while the middle/upper class use public entrances/elevators. This reinforces a sense of inferiority among the poor (p. 88).

1.1.10. Brazil's elite thought that domestic workers are better off as workers in their homes because they will have access to food, shelter and protection. The longevity of the relationships with their domestic workers allowed them to state that it can't be too bad if the domestic worker has stayed on for 20 years (p. 89).

1.1.11. Living in a favela is an automatic class marker in Rio (p. 108)

1.2. Race

1.2.1. No matter what color the skin of the domestic worker, there is an association with the dirty work that needs to be done in the household (p. 73).

1.2.2. Race physically reinforced the separation of privileged from the non privileged classes (p. 76)

1.2.3. Lower class = black while upper class = white (p. 103).

1.2.4. In Brazil, it is race and recism that people are generally uncomfortable speaking about (p. 103)

1.2.5. Ethnographic approaches to race - ones set out to capture how the discourses of color, race, racism, racial prejudice and racilization permeate everyday life - are sorely needed (p. 106)

1.2.6. Brazilians evaluate race primarily according to appearance (p. 106).

1.2.7. Color terms in Brazil are complicated and elided with words that refer to racial identities (p. 106).

1.2.8. Those who have lighter skin or have whiter characteristics are believed to have better chances of succeeding in life (p. 108).

1.3. Slavery

1.3.1. Lower class lacks knowledge of how to act appropriately in public spaces. In restaurants, the lower class did not know how to be served. In swimming pools, they acted like they didn’t belong. Elite spaces for the elite. The lower classes were not comfortable in these environments (p. 92).

1.3.2. Domestic workers are cherished and appreciated in the households of middle and upper class. This stems from this period (p. 73).

1.3.3. Meu nego/minha nega (my Nigro) meant as terms of endearments for slaves (p. 74)

1.4. Education

1.4.1. Elite has access to the private schools and better education (p. 93)

1.4.2. Education and class are associated in Brazil (p. 95).

2. Humor

2.1. Felicidade Eterna

2.1.1. Laughter (p. 2) About political and economic structures. About contraditions within thier own poverty. Black humor Uses humor to oppose offical Brazilian racial, class and gender ideology (p.35).

3. Theories

3.1. Brian Owensby (p. 67)

3.1.1. Brazilian middle classness is a state of mind oreitned to a dynamic social and economic arena; a historical identity construction

3.2. Bourdieu (p.68)

3.2.1. Domestic workers equal cultural capital objectified as a kind of good/service.

3.3. Rubbo/Taussig (p. 68)

3.3.1. The theory of identifying social classes via having or not having domestic workers.

3.4. Tolosa (p. 70)

3.4.1. In 1989, Rio is the most unequal distribution of income of any metro area of Brazil.

3.5. Buarque (p. 71)

3.5.1. The domestic worker-employer relationship merits closer attention precisely because it is one of the rare places where relations of intmacy take place despite the class. This is the class gap that characterizes Brazil's social apartheid.

3.6. Freye (p. 73-74)

3.6.1. Special place of the slave women in the sexual life in colonial Brazil as mistresses of planters and sexual initiator of thier white sons.

3.7. Graham (p. 74)

3.7.1. After slavery ends, relationships between master and servants remains.

3.8. Caufield (p. 75)

3.8.1. Hiding of a lower class while showcasing a higher class is the fundamental question of identity.

3.9. Skidmore

3.9.1. After slavery ends and before the declaration of the First Republic in 1889, elites became very much concerned about the image conveyed to their North American and western European trade partners (p. 76).

3.10. Needell

3.10.1. Elite in Rio looked at certain aspects of the city - those that contained the poor masses of Afro-Brazilians who had migrated there in the years following slavery - in much of the same way that European's viewed thier colonies as areas obstructed by an inferior race and culture (p. 77)

3.10.2. Considered the Modernist Movement (p. 78).

3.11. Holston (p. 79)

3.11.1. Brazilian middle class apartment is one divided into 3 independent zones - social, intimate and service - to separate the classes from one another.

3.12. Stalleybrass and White (p. 87)

3.12.1. Discuss the class dimensions of carnivalesque activity and point to the purpose of maintaining a "low Other" as an object within the view of the high culture gaze.

3.13. Hall (p. 87)

3.13.1. When you know what everybody else is, then you are what they are not.

3.14. Scott/Bourdieu (p. 88)

3.14.1. Idea of euphemization to express domination. Slavery was the best interest for slaves because it kept them properly fed, clothed, etc.

3.15. Needell (p. 92)

3.15.1. Working classes are barred from the important dimensions of public life.

3.16. Pastore (p. 95)

3.16.1. Afro Brazilians, locked into the lowest earnings in the economy, face a challenge that is doubly hard, they must first enter and succeed in the labor market before even entertaining the hope of gaining access to institutions of higher learning.

3.17. Harris (p. 106)

3.17.1. Suggests that the attribution of a racial category may be influenced by a person's class and that old Brazilian adage that money whitens may still be relavant.

3.18. Fry (p. 106)

3.18.1. Multiple Node of everyday racial discourse in Brazil that appears to suggest that Brazilians conceptualize race as composed of multiple categories rather than as black and white. Brazilians celebrate a color blind sexuality.

3.19. Gilman (p. 111)

3.19.1. Pointed out how the perception of the prostitute in the late 19th century was merged with the perception of the black body in art, literature and science and how representations of the black body came to define black sexuality as something exotic.

4. Brazilian History

4.1. 1920

4.1.1. Sept - King Albert and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium to Rio. Elite class attempted to make a particular presentation of themselves in order to show a positive picture to visiting European monarchs. Governmetn prepared the city by highlighting certain aspects and hiding others (poverty). (p. 75)

4.1.2. Rio elites travel to Paris and admire what an example of a civilized city should look like (p 78).

4.1.3. Haussmanis planning that hid the poor from public spaces in Paris were hired for city planning in Rio so that the working class, Afro-Brazilian culture and shabby commerce were either pushed to the North Zone or into hillside favelas - giving the elite access to the new city center (p. 78)

4.1.4. Brazil struggled over their racially mixed population (p. 78)

4.2. 1933

4.2.1. Freyre wrote the book The Masters and The Slaves - was credited for changing the term "race" for the term "culture" which alleviated the predominately white Brazilian elite to a historically mixed race population. This ideology was embraced by Brazilians because it was a shift from racism (p. 79)

4.3. 1922

4.3.1. Paulo Prado financed a Modern Art Week Festival in Sao Paulo in hopes to turn the population "white" and wrote Portrait of Brazil where he named the mixture of the three races as a source sadness (p. 78).

4.4. 1985

4.4.1. Rio 7% of Brazil's manufacturing production (p. 69)

4.4.2. Sau Paulo 26% of Brazil's manufacturing production (p. 69)

4.5. 1988

4.5.1. Average household earnings per capita 22% higher in Sao Paulo than in Rio. Rio became poorer throughout the 1980s (p. 69)

5. Brazilian Class

5.1. Upper/Middle Class

5.1.1. Donna Beth Daughter Wants Independence from Mother (p. 60)

5.2. Low/Working Class

5.2.1. Favelas Gloria's Parents from favela - Gloria's mother was a domestic worker (p. 72) Gloria

6. Wages

6.1. 5 minimum wages for a 6 day workweek

7. Brazilian Race/Culture

7.1. Three kinds of race

7.1.1. Oswald de Andrade's book Manifesto Antropofago - rather than imitate foreign models of race, Brazil took thier race and made it uniquely Brazilian (p. 79)

7.2. Black, white, brown or mixed, dark, light, closed and freckled (p. 106).