Self-Directed Learning

Self-Directed Learning Module 3

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Self-Directed Learning by Mind Map: Self-Directed Learning

1. What is it?

1.1. Learner takes control of their own learning

1.1.1. decides what to do and how to learn

1.1.2. process and an attribute

1.1.2.1. psychological

1.1.2.2. social

1.1.2.3. political

1.1.2.4. cultural

1.1.2.5. economic

1.1.3. SDL Learning Contexts

1.1.3.1. personal

1.1.3.2. professional

1.1.3.3. organizational

1.1.3.4. educational

1.1.3.5. online environment

1.1.3.5.1. VLE (virtual learning environments)

1.1.3.6. Creates much of our learning

1.1.3.6.1. 4 Ways learning occurs

1.2. Variances in SDL

1.2.1. willingness

1.2.2. motivation

1.2.3. circumstances

1.3. How SDL are diminished

1.3.1. too much dependency on the teaccher

1.3.2. unclear visions

1.3.3. instructors that try to micromanage

2. Theories to Support SDL

2.1. Tough: Learners move through a series of steps

2.1.1. 1. What to learn?

2.1.2. 2. Resources?

2.1.3. 3. Where to learn?

2.1.4. 4. Motivation?

2.1.5. 5. Setting Goals

2.1.6. 6. Pace

2.1.7. 7. Assessing Knowledge

2.1.8. 8. Evaluate

2.2. Caffarella: 4 Goals to Motivate in SDL:

2.2.1. aspiration to gain knowledge to develop skill

2.2.2. become more self-directed in learning

2.2.3. inspire transformational learning

2.2.4. emancipatory

2.3. Guglielimino: SDL is a blend of attitudes, values, and abilities

2.3.1. qualities contributing to readiness

2.3.1.1. curiousity

2.3.1.2. independence

2.3.1.3. enjoyment

2.3.1.4. goal setting

2.3.1.5. problem-solving orientation

2.4. Garrison

2.4.1. SDL is affected by

2.4.1.1. self management

2.4.1.1.1. control their environment so they can meet their needs

2.4.1.2. self-monitoring

2.4.1.2.1. cognitive aspects

2.4.1.2.2. reflective practice and critical thinking

2.4.1.3. motivation

2.4.1.3.1. what drives the learner

2.5. Clardy: 4 Types of SDL projects

2.5.1. induced - mandatory

2.5.2. synergistic - optional learning

2.5.3. voluntary - learning to help you achieve a goal

2.5.4. scanning - ongoing process of searching for new learning

2.6. Knowles: Process of SDL

2.6.1. 1. Climate setting

2.6.2. 2. diagnosing learning needs

2.6.3. 3. formulating learning goals

2.6.4. 4. identifying human and material resources for learning

2.6.5. 5. choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies

2.6.6. 6. Evaluating learning outcomes

2.7. Grows: How educators can help becomes more self-directed

2.7.1. 1. dependent, lacking self-direction

2.7.2. 2. interested and confident

2.7.3. 3. Involved: engaged as SDL

2.7.3.1. process knowledge and self-efficacy

2.7.4. 4. self-directed learner

2.8. Brockett and Hiemstra: Personal responsibility Orientation (PRO)

2.8.1. instructional process

2.8.1.1. learner takes responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating learning

2.8.2. personal attributes

2.8.2.1. whether you want to learn or not

2.8.3. updated model

2.8.3.1. person, process, context (PPC)

2.8.3.1.1. person

2.8.3.1.2. process

2.8.3.1.3. context

2.8.4. proponents of the learner taking responsibility for own learning

2.8.4.1. SDL is positively associated with high self-efficacy

3. Mentors/Educators

3.1. Ways to motivate

3.1.1. 1. Providing a clear goal to strive for

3.1.1.1. plan out and tell your mentee what they need to know

3.1.2. 2. energizing an individual to help attain a possible self

3.1.2.1. helps mentee "audit" who they are and who they need to become

3.1.2.1.1. Must help and show adult learners to take personal/professional responsibility of their own learning

3.1.2.1.2. Who they are and who they have been, so that they can work on becoming positive

3.2. Must be sufficiently skilled and experienced in their profession

3.3. Must be open to new experiences/ideas/learning

3.3.1. creating scaffolds

3.4. Must not be a "know-it-all"

3.4.1. MUST be able to self-reflect (transformative learning)

3.4.2. Always seeking new ideas, teaching techniques to reach students

3.5. Want to bolster the mentees professional and personal growth

3.5.1. step back and support risk-taking and mistakes

3.5.2. Must be sensitive and empathetic

3.5.3. develop individual strengths

3.5.4. help guide learners by asking questions and helping them dig deeper in their learning

3.6. Looks past labels and realizes that everyone is capable of learning

3.6.1. different paces, but ALL capable

3.6.2. Teaching students to learn how to learn (life-skill)

3.7. Try not to overload

3.8. Providing a holding environment

3.8.1. holding on (confirmation)

3.8.2. letting go (contradiction)

3.8.3. sticking around (continuity)

3.9. 2-Way Learning Process

3.9.1. Mullen and Lick

4. Mentees/Learners

4.1. Want to be in charge of their own learning with support

4.1.1. NEED to be self-reliant

4.2. Need support when being asked to view the world and everything around them differently

4.3. Observing/Analyzing own learning

4.3.1. SDL

4.3.1.1. 2 approaches

4.3.1.1.1. teaching and learning strategies

4.3.1.1.2. particular models (self-direction)

4.3.1.2. reconstruct knowledge instead of trying to reproduce it

4.3.2. Order of Consciousness

4.3.2.1. impulsive

4.3.2.2. instrumental - learning "how to", not the "why"

4.3.2.3. socializing

4.3.2.3.1. isolate information to keep it seperate from their own lives so they don't ask/raise questions

4.3.2.3.2. pay very close attention to details

4.3.2.3.3. understand how they came up with certain ideas

4.3.2.4. self-authorizing - get an education to reach their goals

4.3.2.5. self-transforming

4.3.3. learning is not an isolated activity, it's SOCIAL

4.3.3.1. interact with the world around them, repsoning to new experiences

4.3.3.2. people learn and develop based on their social interactions

4.3.4. self-study action research allows for deeper/richer learning experiences

4.3.5. Self-Assessment

4.3.5.1. begins with reachable goals

4.3.5.2. in order to self assess, you need to

4.3.5.2.1. be responsible for learning goals

4.3.5.2.2. set criteria for learning

4.3.5.2.3. modify based on knowledge and feedback

4.4. bad learning experiences = fractured learning identity

4.5. Living in Multiple Worlds

4.5.1. action and committment

4.5.2. emotional validation and conflict

4.5.3. worlds that will change both the mind and heart

4.5.3.1. Epistemological Beliefs of the learner

4.5.3.1.1. academic knowledge

4.5.3.1.2. real-world knowledge

4.5.3.2. 2 Knowledge Voices

4.5.3.2.1. Outside Voice

4.5.3.2.2. Cynical Voice

4.5.3.2.3. represented by affective connections to self, life roles, and life actions

4.5.3.2.4. learning knowledge that does not contradict their understandings of how they see themselves and their worlds \

4.5.3.2.5. Separate Knowledge Worlds

4.6. Acts of Hope

4.6.1. First Act of Hope

4.6.1.1. seeking entry into college

4.6.2. Second Act of Hope

4.6.2.1. ongoing engagement in a collegiate environment

4.6.3. Third Act of Hope

4.6.3.1. Focus on engagement in learning new knowledge, new perspectives, and new beliefs

5. Motivation

5.1. The drive and energy we put into accomplishing something that we want to do

5.1.1. Autonomy

5.1.1.1. yearning to direct our own lives

5.1.1.1.1. Personal

5.1.1.1.2. Pedagogical

5.1.2. Mastery

5.1.2.1. compulsion to improve/progress

5.1.3. Purpose

5.1.3.1. connect goals, words, and policies to promote purpose

5.2. Motivation Theory

5.2.1. Economic or Rational Motivation Theory

5.2.1.1. motivation based on rewards

5.2.2. Social or Human Motivation Theory

5.2.2.1. people are social and are motivated by relationship

5.2.3. Behavioristic Motivation Theory

5.2.3.1. behaviors are awarded

5.2.4. Need-Driven Motivational Theories

5.2.4.1. intrinsic needs are the drive to behaviors

5.2.4.1.1. hierarchy of needs

5.2.5. Cognitive Motivation Theory

5.2.5.1. how our thoughts influence our actions

5.3. Not always enough if other variables get in the way

5.3.1. affect adult motivation

5.3.1.1. personal

5.3.1.2. societal

5.3.1.3. learning

5.4. Theory of Margin: McClusky

5.4.1. "power-load" margin (PLM)

5.4.1.1. load: self and social demands

5.4.1.2. power: resources

5.4.1.3. margin: dynamic relationship between load and power

5.4.1.3.1. 6 Key Areas for Measuring Margin

5.5. Houles:

5.5.1. 3 types of learning orientations

5.5.1.1. Goal-Oriented Learners

5.5.1.2. Activity-Oriented Learners

5.5.1.3. Learning-Oriented Learners

5.6. Wlodkowski

5.6.1. 4 Motivational Conditions

5.6.1.1. Establishing Inclusion

5.6.1.2. Framework

5.6.1.3. Enhancing meaning through creating challenging and engaging experiences that value the learner

5.6.1.4. Engendering Confidence

6. Myths in SDL

6.1. Brockett: Myths 1-6

6.1.1. 1. SDL is an all or nothing concept

6.1.2. 2. self-direction implies learning in isolation

6.1.3. 3. SDL is the best approach for adults

6.1.4. 4. SDL is limited primarily to white, middle class adults

6.1.5. 5. SDL is not worth the time required to make it work

6.1.6. 6. SDL activities are limited primarily to reading and writing

6.2. Myths 7-10: focuses on teachers, pedagogy, and institutions

6.2.1. 7. facilitating self-direction is an easy way out for teacher

6.2.2. 8. SDL is limited primarily to those settings where freedom democracy prevail

6.2.3. 9. self-direction is just another adult education fad

6.2.4. 10. SDL will erode the quality of institutional programs