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Constructivism by Mind Map: Constructivism

1. Inquiry Learning

1.1. Problem solving based learning aproach

1.2. Constructivist ~ (Tracy, Morrow, 2006) Active construction of knowledge by individuals. Internal, not necessarily observable (p. 50). Hypothesis testing and inferencing.

1.3. Collaborative and cooperative learning

2. Schema Theory

2.1. How knowledge is created and used by learners

2.2. Pliant and expandable

2.3. Constantly changing. actively learning, constructing and reconstructing schemas

2.4. accretation, tuning, restructuring

2.5. brain storming/webbing, before reading activities to activated schema on a topic

3. Transactional/Reader Response Theory

3.1. Reader Responses

3.1.1. Efferent (fact oriented) and Aesthetic (Personal and emotionally based)

3.2. Constructivist ~Emphasis active role of reader making meaning

3.3. (Tracy, Morrow, 2006) Recognizes the centrality of internal, nonabsorbable events to learning and knowledge construction (p. 56)

3.4. Post reading activities. Literary responses groups, reader's theater, story telling, dioramas, ..etc..

3.5. Connections ~ Text to self, text to text and text to world.

4. Psycholinguistic Theory

4.1. Study of the links between psychology and language

4.2. Cueing system (used to make predictions about test based on knowledge. ~ Make an Hypothesis ~ Predict what text will say

4.2.1. Syntactic (grammar)

4.2.2. Semantic (meaning)

4.2.3. Graphophonic (visual patterns of words and their sounds

4.3. Active participants in the reading process

4.4. Running records, guided reading lessons

5. Whole Language Theory

5.1. (Tracy, Morrow, 2006) Reading a natural process that children acquire if immersed in a high quality literacy environment and exposed to meaningful authentic literacy experiences in high quality literature (pp. 59 - 60)

5.2. Listening, speaking, reading, writing, are all interconnected

5.3. Thematic instruction

6. Metacognition Theory

6.1. Comprehension strategies

6.1.1. "Fix up" strategies, goal setting, self questioning, summarization, visualization, purpose of reading, over viewing the text, reading selectively, making associations to ideas, revising prior knowledge

6.1.2. Constructivist ~ Active, internal cognitive engagement as central to the reading process.

7. Engagement Theory

7.1. Use elements of the metacognition theory strategies. (Tracy, Morrow, 2006) Emphasizing motivational, conceptual, social aspects of learning (p. 65).

7.2. Concept -oriented Reading Instruction

7.2.1. 1. Use of themes 2. student choice 3. hands on activities 4. wide variety of text genres 5. Integration of social collaboration with reading responses.

8. 3 processes

8.1. Hypothesis Testing

8.2. Inferencing

8.3. Unobservable (learning through internal mechanisms

9. Allison Smoker (RR 2)