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Airflow Limitation by Mind Map: Airflow Limitation

1. Initiating Event or Irritant

1.1. long term exposure to an irritant, such as smoking and asbestos.

1.1.1. This stresses the tracheobronchial cellular environment, causing cellular adaptation to take place along with AIR process.

2. Cellular Adaption

2.1. Hyperplasia of the goblet cells in the surface epithelium

2.2. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the submucosal glands in the large bronchi

2.3. Metaplasia for example ciliated epithelial cells change to stratified squamous epithelial cells

3. Acute Inflammatory Response

3.1. Triggered by cell injury. AIR eliminates the irritant and prevents it from spreading. In turn initiating wound healing

3.1.1. AIR process: chemical mediators, vascular response and cellular response

4. Mucus Hypersecretion

4.1. Hyperplasia of the goblet cells secondary to chemical mediators, histamine, and leukotriene.

5. Ciliary Dysfunction

5.1. Thick mucus makes it difficult for cilia to function.

5.2. Can be secondary to smoking.

5.3. Once ciliated epithelial cells are replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells, it is difficult for cilia to function.

6. Airflow Restriction

6.1. Bronchitis

6.1.1. Inflammation of airways

6.1.2. Increased mucus production

6.1.3. Mucus plug

6.1.4. Bronchoconstriction

6.1.5. Cellular adaption

6.1.6. Airway fibrosis

6.2. Emphysema

6.2.1. Loss of elastic recoil and radial retraction

7. Pulmonary Hyperinflation

7.1. Caused by blockages in the air passages or by air sacs that are less elastic, which interferes with the expulsion of air from the lungs.

8. Gas Exchange Abnormalities

8.1. Bronchitis: Caused by cellular adaption, AIR, increased mucus production and bronchoconstriction.

8.2. Emphysema: caused by loss of elastic recoil and radial traction

8.3. Represented by clubbing in fingers and polycythemia

9. Pulmonary Hypertension

9.1. Alveolar hypoxia leads to compensatory vasoconstriction of the pulmonary capillaries and larger vessels. This allows blood to divert from areas of low alveolar oxygen to high. Initially this compensatory response will improve the ventilation and perfusion match.

10. Cor Pulmonae

10.1. Chronic alveolar hypoxia leads to permanent pulmonary hypertension

10.2. created by a constant increase in after load and workload in the RV, causes right sided heart failure.