Central Nervous System

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Central Nervous System by Mind Map: Central Nervous System

1. The ability to store relate and record information comes from the expanded cerebral cortex.

2. Sciatica → Brain stem: People who suffer from sciatica have problems with motor movements

3. Sensory → Thalamus: Responsible for interpreting sensory messages, such as touch, received from the body

4. Sensory → Diencephalon: The plethora of communicating pathways between these structures and other parts of the body makes the diencephalon a functionally diverse area

5. Transection → Brain: The degree of neurological compromise corresponds with the degree of cord transection. In partial transection, there may still be some retained sensory-motor function while incomplete transaction there is a complete loss of function

6. Arachnoid layer → Cerebrospinal fluid: Acts as a cushion to the brain

7. Dura Mater → Blood supply: Dura mater surrounds and supports the large venous channels (dural sinuses) carrying blood from the brain toward the heart

8. Cerebrum → Stroke: two-thirds of strokes occur in the cerebrum, the largest and uppermost portion of the brain. Its outer layer of gray matter, known as the cerebral cortex, is the center of conscious thought, perception, voluntary movement, and integration of all sensory input

9. The primary function of CSF is to cushion the brain within the skull and serve as a shock absorber for the central nervous system

10. Cerebellum → Ataxias: Failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders.

11. Functions of the Nervous System

11.1. Sensory input

11.2. Integration

11.3. Motor input

12. Spinal Cord

12.1. Sensory (afferent)

12.2. Motor (efferent)

12.3. Reflexes and reflex arc

12.4. Dermatome

12.5. Ramus

12.5.1. Dermatome has spinal nerves while the ramus and plexus are spinal nerves

12.6. Plexus

12.7. Spinal cord diseases/disorders

12.7.1. Transection

12.7.2. Sciatica

12.7.2.1. Sciatic nerve

12.7.2.1.1. Longest and widest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back, through the buttocks, and down the legs, ending just below the knee

12.7.2.1.2. Controls several muscles in the lower legs and supplies sensation to the skin of the foot and the majority of the lower leg

13. Meninges

13.1. Dura Mater (tough mother)

13.2. Arachnoid layer

13.3. Pia Mater (delicate mother)

14. Cerebrospinal fluid

15. Brain

15.1. Brain stem

15.1.1. Medulla

15.1.1.1. Located at the base of your brain, where the brain stem connects the brain to your spinal cord. It plays an essential role in passing messages between your spinal cord and brain

15.1.2. Pons varolli

15.1.2.1. Links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus, whose primary function is to regulate breathing, sleeping etc.

15.1.3. Midbrain

15.2. Diencephalon

15.2.1. Thalamus

15.2.2. Hypothalamus

15.2.2.1. Part of the brain that has a vital role in controlling many bodily functions including the release of hormones from the pituitary gland

15.3. Cerebrum

15.3.1. Cerebral cortex

15.3.1.1. The thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum, covered by the meninges and often referred to as gray matter

15.3.2. Corpus callosum

15.3.2.1. A large, C-shaped nerve fiber bundle found beneath the cerebral cortex, that stretches across the midline of the brain, connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres

15.4. Cerebellum

15.5. Blood supply

16. Diseases/disorders

16.1. Ataxias

16.2. Alzheimer's disease

16.2.1. Typically destroys neurons and their connections in parts of the brain involved in memory, including the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus

16.2.2. It later affects areas in the cerebral cortex responsible for language, reasoning, and social behavior

16.3. Dyslexia

16.3.1. A person with a dyslexic brain has a different distribution of metabolic activation than the brain of a person without reading problems when accomplishing the same language task

16.3.2. There is a failure of the left hemisphere rear brain systems to function properly during reading

16.4. Strokes

16.4.1. Blocked or ruptured artery

17. By: Vivian & Yash

18. Brain stem → Reflexes/reflex arc: Serves a critical role in regulating certain involuntary actions of the body, including heartbeat and breathing. The reflexes manage and quickly fast respond to changes in the internal or external environment to maintain homeostasis