Natural Sciences

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Natural Sciences by Mind Map: Natural Sciences

1. Scope-Annette

1.1. motivation of the pursuit of knowledge?

1.1.1. Seeking understanding of natural phenomenas

1.1.1.1. trying to understand and answer questions or theories

1.1.2. scientific knowledge

1.1.2.1. observation and experimentation

1.1.2.2. may change

1.1.2.2.1. can be disproven

1.1.3. can give more interest into the scientific path

1.1.3.1. It needs a lot of different perspectives in order to fully make it true

1.1.3.1.1. the different perspectives may find a new approach or solution

1.2. practical problems that can be solved?

1.2.1. Through the use of many experiments and peer evaluations a scientific theory can be "solved"

1.2.1.1. There will always be room for improvement and further testing

1.2.1.2. It can always be questioned

1.2.2. Creation of life

1.2.2.1. Miller-Urey experiment

1.2.3. How does a plant transport water in such great hights

1.2.3.1. negative pressure

1.2.4. The Higgs boson

1.2.4.1. explain why particles have mass

1.2.5. Although some of these experiments are still unknown, they can be a stepping point to a true law or discovery

1.2.5.1. Although mostly practical problem are solved though laws which has undergone many testing but still end up to the original conclusion

1.2.5.1.1. It is very hard to disprove

1.3. key current open/unanswered questions?

1.3.1. Time

1.3.1.1. Why does time seem to flow only in one direction?

1.3.2. Matter

1.3.2.1. What happens in the section between solid and liquid?

1.3.3. Theories

1.3.3.1. Can we find a unified theory of physics?

1.3.4. There are many unknown questions about our world which is why science is still so relevent

1.3.4.1. Although we have answered many of the "basic" aspects of science, there is so much more which we might not even though about

1.3.4.1.1. where we might have taken it for granted

1.3.4.2. Scientist look for those unanswered questions and try to connect it to their existing understanding

1.3.4.2.1. from their links and seen relationships they can try and answer this question

1.3.4.2.2. Sometimes there is an amazing question which might not have any previous knowledge about

1.4. what makes this knowledge important?

1.4.1. Shows how there is so much we do not know

1.4.2. Can keep on finding new things to understand

2. Methods & Tools- Cathy

2.1. assumptions that underlie methods of inquiry?

2.2. what is seen to constitute “good evidence”?

2.3. how is knowledge produced and communicated?

2.4. tools used for the production and acquisition of knowledge?

3. Ethics

3.1. ethical constraints?

3.1.1. Natural sciences are definitely concerned with ethical constraints

3.1.1.1. e.g. atomic bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima: the extent of the consequences of technological advancements is clearly a big issue.

3.1.1.1.1. help us understand that sometimes the technological advancements made through the progress of scientific knowledge can have unforeseen consequences.

3.2. responsibilities?

3.2.1. Scientists and Politicians both plays a big part in the responsibilities

3.2.1.1. Scientists need ethics to determine whether what the are doing is ethical

3.2.1.2. When deciding a policy, the government has to think to the long run of whether the policy will cause any ethical constraints

3.3. when we should act on what we know?

3.3.1. It is clear that an ethical approach to knowledge is necessary, and that new challenges and questions will arise through the development of new technologies and through new problems that humankind may face.

4. Perspectives - Edgardo

4.1. key historical developments?

4.1.1. process of knowledge production that involves change as a key driver.

4.1.2. "Paradigm Shift"

4.1.2.1. natural sciences is permanently progressing

4.1.2.1.1. New technology

4.1.2.2. Definition: is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

4.1.2.3. Kuhn's Methodology of Pre - Science

4.1.3. Examples : Iphone / (Smart phone)

4.1.3.1. Everything started to move digitally

4.1.3.1.1. People can purchase any product online

4.1.3.1.2. Communication is Easier and Quicker

4.1.3.1.3. People are able to socialize online (Without meeting)

4.1.3.1.4. More personalized information / Data

4.1.3.2. New ideas that could Develop society as a whole

4.1.3.2.1. GPS - Google Maps (Where to go)

4.1.3.2.2. Youtube - People watching Videos

4.1.3.2.3. Uber - Cab Company

4.1.4. Ignaz Semmelweis and hand washing

4.1.4.1. Allowing people to wash hands

4.2. knowledge that is rooted in particular social and cultural groups?

4.2.1. Influential individuals have produced scientific discoveries and breakthroughs

4.2.1.1. Knowledge was produced in the different disciplines.

4.2.1.2. Individual creativity can sometimes solve problems that the collective cannot, by bringing new perspectives.

4.2.1.2.1. Scientific Discoveries

4.3. types of knowledge that less open to interpretation than others?

4.3.1. ‘fact’ today can change in the future, with different approaches and new evidence or technology.

4.3.2. Example: Smartphones are not healthy for a person and will affect some people's well - being

4.4. the perspective of other knowers?

4.4.1. Scientist are trying to prove that they're theory is wrong

4.4.1.1. When scientist make a claim

4.4.1.1.1. Other Scientist that are trying to figure out a solution to challenge the situation itself

4.4.2. Thomas Kuhn Methodology

4.4.2.1. Pre - Science only happen once, the model will drift and the possibly a Model Revolution