Gottfredson's Theory

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Gottfredson's Theory by Mind Map: Gottfredson's Theory

1. Stage 4: Orientation to the Internal Unique Self (14 Years and Older) At this stage, adolescents now have an idea, similar to adults, of which occupations are acceptable to them. They have become keenly aware of sexual attractiveness to others, how they look, and notions of status; they are also concerned with how others view them. Fitting into the right crowd becomes important in adolescence. Individuals are not only concerned about how they see themselves but also how others see them. Teenagers are likely to see obligations that they will have toward others, the notion that they will have families to provide for, and the importance of providing for themselves.

2. Stages of Circumscription:

3. Stage 3: Orientation to Social Valuation (9–13 Years Old) As students enter the fourth grade, they tend to become more and more aware of their peers, including what they think of their peers and what their peers think of them. At this point, they become more conscious of social class.

4. Stage 1: Orientation to Size and Power (3–5 Years Old) Children tend to view things concretely. They begin to classify others in terms of simple terms such as large-small or old-young.

5. Stage 2: Orientation to Sex Roles (6–8 Years Old) When children are in the early grades of elementary school, they are likely to think in concrete terms and make simple distinctions. Children aged 6 to 8 years may believe that their own gender is superior. At this point, they develop a tolerable-sex type boundary, which refers to the idea that certain occupations are acceptable or tolerable for boys only or for girls only.

6. 1.Children of the same age vary greatly in terms of their ability to learn. 2. Genetic factors have an important influence on how children develop intellectually. 3.Children may go through the tasks of Bloom’s taxonomy or Piaget’s cognitive development stages at different ages. 4.Children who have highly developed intellectual skills are better able to make use of information in their environment and information given to them by teachers than children with less developed intellectual skills 5. more intellectually able children are able to take information from their environment, the more likely they are to have developed career maturity,

7. Children are able to move from concrete thinking to more abstract thinking as they get older. This process, is part of Piaget’s four major periods of cognitive development: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

8. Gottfredson (2005) uses Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive tasks to describe the characteristics of the learning process.

9. Remember—Learning specific facts, not necessarily related to others Understand—Identifying and understanding similarities and differences among objects or ideas Apply—Making inferences from information and deciding about the value of this information Analyze—Drawing from information to weigh advantages and disadvantages of a decision Evaluate—Using various criteria to make judgments about which decisions would be best Create—Making a plan to obtain a goal

10. Theory of Self-Creation: cognitive development plays in vocational choice; individual differences in intellectual growth can play a strong role in one’s career path in adulthood. The relationship between genetics and the environment influences cognitive growth as well as personality and interests.

10.1. Nonshared Events Events that are unique to an individual that may have an impact on one’s choices

10.2. Genes-Drives-Experience Theory The view that biological factors have continuing influence on how we see ourselves

10.3. Internal Genetic Compass A guide that is influenced by biological and genetic factors

10.4. Niches Life settings and roles that individuals occupy

11. Career Development: individuals create themselves as their psychological selves interact with environmental factors, including gender and prestige.

12. Internal Compass -that guides them as they make choices in their daily lives and is developed by the many choices they make each day. The internal compass reflects the interaction between one’s biological self and the experiences that one encounters in the world. It serves as a guide for many developmental processes, including career development.

13. Career Choice: The process of choosing a career includes the development of a cognitive map of occupations that is integrated into an individual’s self-concept.

14. Circumscription: the process in which young people eliminate alternatives that they feel will not be appropriate to them.

15. Compromise: the process in which young people give up alternatives that they may like for ones that may be more accessible to them

15.1. Compromise refers to having to make trade-offs among sex type, prestige, and interests. The following are examples of predictions from Gottfredson’s theory about how individuals will compromise their choices: When compromises are relatively small (that is, all options are still within their social space), individuals are likely to give their greatest priority to maximizing fit with their interests. When compromises are moderate (that is, all options are somewhat outside their social space), individuals will likely sacrifice interest in a job before they will sacrifice acceptability in either prestige or sex type. When compromises are severe (that is, all options are far outside their social space), individuals will likely sacrifice both interests and prestige to maintain an acceptable sex type.

16. two concepts: individuals must not only make choices about occupations (circumscription) ----but must also deal with the influence of the outside world (compromise) Such as: culture, discrimination, the job market, and competition with others.

17. Cognitive Growth

18. Three Factors of Compromise

18.1. Why do young people know so little about how to enter or get education for work they prefer?

18.2. How does the behavior of individuals affect their access to educational or occupational information?

18.3. Which factors in the process of selecting an occupation are young people most and least willing to give up when they cannot obtain their first choice of occupation or work?