Language acquisition and early language development

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Language acquisition and early language development by Mind Map: Language acquisition and early language development

1. Communication is a loop. Message sent, message received, interpreted by the receiver, then a reaction, and the loop reoccurs. We can prejudge the message due to expressions preconceived ideas, different languages, etc.

2. Receptive Language = parents role in how we articulate

3. Components of Language and Communication (in slides wk1) = Morphemic Knowledge (word structure), Syntactic Knowledge (knowledge of the structure of language i.e. grammar), Semantic Knowledge (knowing that words and language have meaning associated to them), Phonological Knowledge (knowledge of the sounds and symbols of language), Pragmatic knowledge (the way language is shaped and used in different social and cultural contexts). More notes on the print out of slides from Module 1.

4. Combination of all three stems = in order to successfully communicate, using language, a child needs to have an idea in their language, then integrate these words with motor skills into speech

5. Language

5.1. Hallidays Model

5.1.1. Describes functions of language children develop as they acquire language (instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative, informative.

5.2. Toughs Model

5.2.1. Similar to Hallidays model yet more developed (self maintaining, directing, reporting, logical reasoning, predicting, projecting, imagining Both Halllidays and Toughs have crossover, Toughs will be useful in Prac.

5.3. Meaning = "knowing about the English language" (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, p.3)

5.3.1. The prime means of communication between people - LANGUAGE IS EXPRESSED THROUGH SPEECH

5.4. Language is either expressive (productive) or receptive (to take in meaning from someone else. Meanings on page 45 of text book.

5.5. Properties of Lang = arbitrary, has structure, is generative, has the capacity for displacement, is linked to thought, is natural.

5.6. Functions of Language = Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative, informative (p. 55 on text book).

5.7. Social norms that direct language = taking turns, cues, interrupting someone, changing subjects, initiating and starting conversations

5.8. Milestones on Speech development - Fellows & Oakley, 2020, pp. 77-89).

5.9. Oral language

5.9.1. Oral language is developed within cultural contexts and is essential that young people have ample opportunities to master their first language

5.9.2. Oral communications = encoder (who formulates the message into a code - spoken language) and a decoder (who receives the message (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, p. 44).

5.9.3. Oral language is the foundation for the development of literacy skills and is considered to be a strong indicator of later reading, writing, and overall academic achievement (Bayetto et al)

5.9.4. Delayed oral language will have a significant impact on learning to read and write

5.9.5. May see a plateau, regression or withdrawal in circumstances such as Parental divorce/separation, family death, or crisis.

5.10. Listening comprehension

5.10.1. Listening is a precursor to reading and different questions should be asked to draw out understandings

5.11. Cambourne's Conditions for oral language development - Immersion, Demonstration, Engagement, Expectation, Responsibility/Agency, Approximation, Employment, Response.

5.12. Unsupportive Toddler Language Learning Enivronments - Adult - decided learning experiences. Replacing interpersonal with TV. Too much sitting and passive learning. Limited materials and resources for exploration. Scheduled fast paced routine No challenges or responses. No catering fro different interests. No books. Demanding quiet play. No space to move and explore.

6. Speech

6.1. Integration from multiple lobes of the brain to produce speech. Primary motor cortex = responsible for the motor coordination of speech. Brocas area - responsible for production of speech (injuries to this area of brain eg. stroke, TBI, result in speech impairments. Primary visual cortex = movement of tongue, lips, teeth. Primary Somatosensory Cortex = sensory vibration in vocal cords

6.2. The lobes in the brain don't all mature at the same time - between 4-6yo they begin to come together & work in alignment = why all children can't be expected to speak at the same level

6.3. Cultural and community factors also determine the variation of speed of learning.

7. Communication

7.1. From the moment we're born we communicate, what makes us human, the survival sophistication of communication evolves over time through a complex system of codes

7.1.1. Social contact through text

7.1.2. Exchange of information Imparting information for survival Expressing needs and wants

7.1.3. Communicating succesful meaning

7.2. Communication Skills = Receptive (ingoing) Listening and Reading. Expressive (outgoing) Speaking and Writing.

7.2.1. Utilising body language to communicate

7.3. "Communication at home = impacts on literacy development, important for social development, requires a secure attatchment (vital). Family literacy interventions promote rich home environments, show positive and lasting outcomes" (all on slide Week Two).

8. Literacy

8.1. "no universally agreed definition, most contemporary definitions of literary do include reading, writing, speaking and listening and viewing or visual literacy" (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, p.2)

8.2. "explanding the repoertoire of English lusage (ACARA, 2018).

8.2.1. Issues that affect children literacy = no positive attitudes towards learning, zero engagement, no intrinsic motivation, lower SES meaning limited resources, language issues, cultural issues especially concerning Aboriginal rights and previously ingrained ideals about westernised schooling, etc..

8.2.2. Issues that assist = Success, choice, challenge, interest, purpose, structure, home and parental interest towards literacy, teaching engagement

8.3. Multiliteracies = scientific, critical literacy, visual, computer literacy ... Functional dimension of multiliteracy map (pp. 5 textbook) (Functional/Critical analyser/Meaning makeer/Transformer).

8.4. Cambourne's seven conditions of literacy learning = immersion, demonstration, responsibility, approximation, employment and feedback. All form together to enable successful learning of language/literacy (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, pp.7)

8.5. One of the most effective tools in teaching in the EYLF is Guthries term of SCAFFOLDING and appropriate provision of tasks

9. Literature

9.1. "understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literary texts" (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, p.3)

10. How is Speech and Language different?

10.1. speech = mechanical process of producing a sound

10.2. speaking = children need the ideas to articulate and the motor coordination/complexities to produce a sound

11. Theoretical perspectives on Literacy learning (Fellows & Oakley, 2020, pp. 6-9 & pp. 72-78).

11.1. All Theories are linked through the debate of Nature vs Nurture. Is various crossovers between some of the theorists and their work (more information on this within the Week Two print out of slides). Ie. Vygotsky and Inner Speech was mentioned by Piaget prior to Vygtosky and the social and cultural context. Also highlighted in Patricia Kuhls work Neurolinguistics and the acquisition of a language in person rather than on a TV.

11.1.1. Emergent Perspective = Piaget Early literacy experiences in the home and community were central to an ongoing literacy learning process, which was seen as active, constructive and social. Was also seen as an ongoing process from birth. Developmental Milestones In week two texts and week two presentation.

11.1.2. Cognitive Development = Thorndike. Children meet a point of readiness before being taught to read and write, while classroom and environmental factors can speed this up. Many issues and not motivational for the children.

11.1.3. Maturational = Jean-Jacques Rousseau/Gessel. Children were not ready to read and write until they were biologically ready. Holds many disadvantages, doesn't consider cultural competency, Contradicts the EYLF

11.1.4. Social Interactionist - Bruner social interactions between children and the significant people in their evinronment. LASS - Language Acquisition Support System = enables children to acquire language through social interaction with adults and older children. Also learnt through the use of scaffolding also concerns the use of Child Directed Speech (CDS) Psychological + Social + Cultural Thinking + Interaction + Environment

11.1.5. Nativist - Chomsky language aqcuistiion is a biological phenomena, and the role played by the environment and other people is less important. The brain is a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Children know grammar due to an idea of universal grammar Positives and negatives on the theory on p.74 of text More on Chomsky in Slides for Week Two and issues pertaining to his ideas with Geenie.

11.1.6. Neurobiological - the capacity to learn language can be attributed to the structure of the brain Language is an inherently learned process but we need input from carers - this backs up every other theory. Also explains why some children may not be able to communicate properly

11.1.7. Socio-cultural Theory - Vygtosky Importance of cultural practices in the home and in other social groups .. children bring certain experiences and attitudes into the classroom environment i.e. cultural captial/funds of knowledge. Freebody and Lukes socio-cultural perspective = Code breaker - Text participant - Text user - Text analyst and the cycle continues.

11.1.8. Evidence based approaches to teaching literacy

11.1.9. Beahvoiurist - Skinner learning is largely shaped by the environment and personal experiences; thus 'nurture' rather than 'nature' is dominant. Positive reinforcement - Receiving rewards. Operant conditioning (skinner) acounts for children's expressive (spoken) language learning. Receptive language is learnt though classic conditioning - process of learning that happens when two stimuli are presented together (p. 73 of text book).

11.2. Theory informs our practice

11.3. Theory of Language Acquisition - What is learned, when it is learned and what influences learning ... Genie Wiley (had the acquisition of learning but missed out on the nurture side, without both combining impossible to create the acquisition of language.

11.4. Nature - what you're born with, the knowledge etc. Nurture - extends further than first attachment parents/family/carers/educators etc

12. Receptive Language = listening

12.1. Considerations for childrens receptive language = sound discrimination, working memory, the listening context, listening skills,

12.2. Reduced hearing & conductive hearing loss - strategies, what is it etc p. 63 of text books

13. Sustained, shared, thinking = the kind of interactions that best support and extended the children's learning.

13.1. "when two or more individuals work together in an intellectual way to solve a problem, clarify a concept, or evaluate an activity ... Both parties must contribute to the thinking and it must develop and extend the understanding" (Sylva et al., 2004, p.6).

13.2. The importance of making time for open-ended and expolatatory conversations.

13.3. Engaging children in deep conversations about what they are doing ...

14. Belonging, Being and Becoming - EYLF

14.1. Childrens Learning

14.1.1. Learning outcomes = Children have a strong sense of identity Children are connected with and contribute to their world. Children have a strong sense of wellbeing. Children are confident and involved learners. Children are effective learners.

14.1.2. Principles = Secure, respectful and reciprocal relationships. Partnerships with families. High expectations and equity. Respect for diversity. Ongoing learning and reflective practices

14.1.3. Practice = Intentionality Holistic approaches Responsiveness to children Learning through play Cultural competence Learning environments Evaluating children's learning and wellbeing Continuity of learning and transitions.