Units summary

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Units summary by Mind Map: Units summary

1. -We can use modals verbs to show that we are making a decution using evidence, not stating a fact. -Different modal verbs tell us how sure about deduction •must sure •may / might / could It is possible that it is •may / might not It is possible that it is not •can not I am sure it is

2. VOCABULARY

2.1. UNIT 6:

2.1.1. Pedestrian crossing • Air conditioning • Rush hour • Traffic lights • Traffic jam • Cycle lane • Rich • Crunchy • go back • go away

2.2. UNIT 7:

2.2.1. • Moving house • Renting • Floor • Black • Views • Location • Neighbourhood • Balcony • Into • Black of flats • First floor

2.3. UNIT 8:

2.3.1. • Be able to afford • Be in stock • Be on sale • Come out • Get a refund • Good value • Have a guarantee • Look for a bargain • Currents affairs • Breaking news • Celebrity gossip

2.4. UNIT 9:

2.4.1. • Thriller • Documentary • Chat show • Comedy • Game show • Action • Science fiction • Drama • Animation • Choir • DJ • Play live • Festival • Musician

2.5. UNIT 10:

2.5.1. • Table tennis • Snowboarding • Volleyball • Wresting • Diving • Ski jumping • Tennis • Surfing

3. GRAMMAR

3.1. Reported speech

4. Modals of deduction

4.1. •When we talk about what somebody said or thought, we can use diredt speech or reported speech: REPORTED QUESTIONS: •When you report Wh-questions, putt he subject before the verb. Do not use the auxiliary: do/does/did OTHER CHANGES •When we repot speech we usually need to change the pronouns and possesives, depending on who is talking to whom. Time and place words may also need to change.

5. Modals of obligation

5.1. -MUST • We use must when we make the rules. -HAVE TO • we use have to when we talk about other peoples rules -MUSTN'T, CAN'T, AND DON'T HAVE TO -We use mus not or can not to say that something is not allowed. -We often mus not when we make the rules and can not to talk about other peoples rules. -We use do not have to when there is no obligation It means It is not necessary to do something.

6. The passive voice

6.1. WE USE THE PASSIVE VERB FORMS: When the main thing we are talking about is the object of the verb. • When the agent (the doer) isn´t important • When the agent (the doer) is very obvious • When we don´t know who did something / what caused something

7. Second and Third conditional

7.1. THE SECOND CONDITIONAL: to talk about imagined events or states and their consequences. They can be the unreal presento r the unlikely future: •We usually use the past simple in the ifclause and would the main clause. We can also use could or might instead of would: •The verb be has a special form in the second conditional. We can use were for all persons: - If I were taller, I'd be better at basketball.

7.2. THIRD CONDITIONAL: We use the third conditional to talk about imagined past events or states and their concequences: • We use the third conditional to talk about imagined past events • We use the past perfect in the if. clause and would have to + past participle • We can also use could have or might have instead of would have

8. Comparatives and superlatives

8.1. We can use comparative adjectives and adverbs to compare two things, situations, times, actions. Usually with that • The opposite of more is less. We can use it with all adjectives and adverbs. • We use superlative adjectives and adverbs to talk about extremes.

9. Quantifiers

9.1. • We usually use some in positive statements and any in negatives and questions. • We use lots of / a lot of in positive sentences, not many/ not much/ not a lot of in negative sentences. • We use a few/ a little about an moment • We use too much/ too many + noun to say there is more that the right amount.

10. Verb patterns

10.1. • Verb + ing (eg: enjoy, mind keep, admitted, recommend, suggest) • By to + infinitive (eg: want, hope, agree, ofther, promise, need, refuse, plan) • With no change of meaning (eg: start, begin, continue) • but the meaning changes (eg: try, forget, remember) • an object before to + infinitive (eg: advise, ask, invite, remind, tell, warn)