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Cognition by Mind Map: Cognition

1. Domains

1.1. Sensation and Perception

1.1.1. Vision

1.1.2. Taste

1.1.3. Proprioception

1.1.4. Olfactory

1.1.5. Auditory

1.1.6. Somatosensory

1.2. Action

1.2.1. coordination strength, dexterity balance, reaction time

1.2.2. construction Praxic skills copying drawing

1.3. Executive functioning

1.3.1. Problem solving and reasoning

1.3.2. language, processing speed

1.3.3. learning memory working Procedural episodic/declaritive semantic prospective attention and concentration

2. Senescence/Age Related Changes

2.1. Vision

2.1.1. Normal Cataracts Decreased contrast sensitivity impaired vision in low light risk for falls delayed visual processing risk for MVA

2.2. Auditory/Presbycusis

2.2.1. Two systems central loss peripheral end organ vestibulocochlear n cochlea May also be attention loss

2.2.2. Loss is linked to gait speed and power (5x sit to stand)

2.3. Olfactory

2.3.1. Abnormal Older adults mobility defecits balance defecits depression and decreased cognition early indication of PD or dementia Younger indicative of future neurodegeneration Theories olfactory tracts to cerebellum decreased use of tracts decreases connectivity

2.4. Cognition

2.4.1. Normal Fluid intelligence decline slower processing speed decline in executive functioning more rigid thinking sleep changes lighter sleep earlier sleep/rise time affects memory consolidation

2.4.2. Abnormal Crystallized intelligence decline procedural semantic memory decline what words mean loss of visuospatial ability

2.4.3. 6 domains Processing speed Attention memory language visuospatial executive functioning

2.5. Cellular level/biologically

2.5.1. loss of cells power of division and growth Theories Telomere Oxidative stress Apoptosis resistance non telomere damage oncogene activation cell cycle arrest epigenetic changes senescence associated secretory phenotype Biological vs Chronological age Genetics lifestyle health status cardiovascular fitness

3. Influences

3.1. Physical Exercise

3.1.1. reduces brain atrophy

3.2. SDOH

3.2.1. SES

3.2.2. Education level

3.2.3. physical environment neighborhood food availability of food

3.2.4. social support

3.2.5. health care system

3.2.6. health outcomes mortality, morbitity life expectancy, health care expenditure health status, functional limitations

3.3. Reserve

3.3.1. Cognitive Reserve Protection against neurodegeneration Based on past experience; what you pour into your brain Can be modified!

3.3.2. Brain Reserve Structures you are born with

3.3.3. brain maintenance resources that increase cognitive reserve

3.3.4. brain resistane

3.3.5. brain resilience

4. Neuropsychology

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. affect of normal/abnormal brain functioning on behavior and cognition

4.1.2. want to detect dysfunction, the progression, and recommend plan

4.2. Diagnostic Tools to detect normal vs abnormal aging

4.2.1. premorbid intellectual functioningl

4.2.2. academic achievement

4.2.3. intelligence

4.2.4. visuospatial skills

4.2.5. motor processing speed