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Cognition by Mind Map: Cognition

1. Domains

1.1. Sensation and Perception

1.1.1. Vision

1.1.2. Taste

1.1.3. Proprioception

1.1.4. Olfactory

1.1.5. Auditory

1.1.6. Somatosensory

1.2. Action

1.2.1. coordination

1.2.1.1. strength, dexterity

1.2.1.2. balance, reaction time

1.2.2. construction

1.2.2.1. Praxic skills

1.2.2.1.1. copying

1.2.2.1.2. drawing

1.3. Executive functioning

1.3.1. Problem solving and reasoning

1.3.2. language, processing speed

1.3.3. learning

1.3.3.1. memory

1.3.3.1.1. working

1.3.3.1.2. Procedural

1.3.3.1.3. episodic/declaritive

1.3.3.1.4. semantic

1.3.3.1.5. prospective

1.3.3.2. attention and concentration

2. Senescence/Age Related Changes

2.1. Vision

2.1.1. Normal

2.1.1.1. Cataracts

2.1.1.2. Decreased contrast sensitivity

2.1.1.3. impaired vision in low light

2.1.1.3.1. risk for falls

2.1.1.4. delayed visual processing

2.1.1.4.1. risk for MVA

2.2. Auditory/Presbycusis

2.2.1. Two systems

2.2.1.1. central loss

2.2.1.2. peripheral end organ

2.2.1.2.1. vestibulocochlear n

2.2.1.2.2. cochlea

2.2.1.3. May also be attention loss

2.2.2. Loss is linked to gait speed and power (5x sit to stand)

2.3. Olfactory

2.3.1. Abnormal

2.3.1.1. Older adults

2.3.1.1.1. mobility defecits

2.3.1.1.2. balance defecits

2.3.1.1.3. depression and decreased cognition

2.3.1.1.4. early indication of PD or dementia

2.3.1.2. Younger

2.3.1.2.1. indicative of future neurodegeneration

2.3.1.3. Theories

2.3.1.3.1. olfactory tracts to cerebellum

2.3.1.3.2. decreased use of tracts decreases connectivity

2.4. Cognition

2.4.1. Normal

2.4.1.1. Fluid intelligence decline

2.4.1.2. slower processing speed

2.4.1.3. decline in executive functioning

2.4.1.3.1. more rigid thinking

2.4.1.4. sleep changes

2.4.1.4.1. lighter sleep

2.4.1.4.2. earlier sleep/rise time

2.4.1.4.3. affects memory consolidation

2.4.2. Abnormal

2.4.2.1. Crystallized intelligence decline

2.4.2.1.1. procedural

2.4.2.2. semantic memory decline

2.4.2.2.1. what words mean

2.4.2.3. loss of visuospatial ability

2.4.3. 6 domains

2.4.3.1. Processing speed

2.4.3.2. Attention

2.4.3.3. memory

2.4.3.4. language

2.4.3.5. visuospatial

2.4.3.6. executive functioning

2.5. Cellular level/biologically

2.5.1. loss of cells power of division and growth

2.5.1.1. Theories

2.5.1.1.1. Telomere

2.5.1.1.2. Oxidative stress

2.5.1.1.3. Apoptosis resistance

2.5.1.1.4. non telomere damage

2.5.1.1.5. oncogene activation

2.5.1.1.6. cell cycle arrest

2.5.1.1.7. epigenetic changes

2.5.1.1.8. senescence associated secretory phenotype

2.5.1.2. Biological vs Chronological age

2.5.1.2.1. Genetics

2.5.1.2.2. lifestyle

2.5.1.2.3. health status

2.5.1.2.4. cardiovascular fitness

3. Influences

3.1. Physical Exercise

3.1.1. reduces brain atrophy

3.2. SDOH

3.2.1. SES

3.2.2. Education level

3.2.3. physical environment

3.2.3.1. neighborhood

3.2.3.2. food

3.2.3.3. availability of food

3.2.4. social support

3.2.5. health care system

3.2.6. health outcomes

3.2.6.1. mortality, morbitity

3.2.6.2. life expectancy, health care expenditure

3.2.6.3. health status, functional limitations

3.3. Reserve

3.3.1. Cognitive Reserve

3.3.1.1. Protection against neurodegeneration

3.3.1.2. Based on past experience; what you pour into your brain

3.3.1.3. Can be modified!

3.3.2. Brain Reserve

3.3.2.1. Structures you are born with

3.3.3. brain maintenance

3.3.3.1. resources that increase cognitive reserve

3.3.4. brain resistane

3.3.5. brain resilience

4. Neuropsychology

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. affect of normal/abnormal brain functioning on behavior and cognition

4.1.2. want to detect dysfunction, the progression, and recommend plan

4.2. Diagnostic Tools to detect normal vs abnormal aging

4.2.1. premorbid intellectual functioningl

4.2.2. academic achievement

4.2.3. intelligence

4.2.4. visuospatial skills

4.2.5. motor processing speed