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Cognition by Mind Map: Cognition

1. Domains of Cognition

1.1. Attention & Concentration

1.2. Memory

1.2.1. Working Memory

1.2.1.1. Also known as short term memory

1.2.1.1.1. Ex. Remembering a phone number long enough to dial it

1.2.2. Declarative/Explicit Memory

1.2.2.1. Interacts with working memory to retrieve information in and out of longer-term storage

1.2.2.1.1. 2 types: Episodic (life events) & Semantic (verbal info/facts)

1.2.3. Implicit Memory

1.2.3.1. Procedural memory

1.2.3.1.1. Memory for motor skills/actions

1.2.4. Prospective Memory

1.2.4.1. Ability to remember to perform tasks in the future

1.2.4.1.1. Ex. Remembering to take medication at the same time every day

1.3. Executive Function

1.3.1. Higher order tasks of the brain

1.3.1.1. Initiation, Inhibition, Planning, Organization, Problem solving

1.4. Processing Speed

1.4.1. Cognitive & motor processing speed

1.5. Language/Verbal Skills

2. Definition of Cognition: The ability of various brain functions - can be organized by brain region or general process involved.

3. What about Cognitive Reserve?

3.1. What is it?

3.1.1. A theoretical construct used to describe individual differences in susceptibility to cognitive, function, or clinical decline due to aging or brain disease -- “adaptability that helps to explain differential susceptibility of cognitive abilities or day-to-day function to brain aging, pathology, or insult.”

3.2. What affects it?

3.2.1. Education level, income, literacy, vocabulary, physical activity, day-to-day activity, pathology

4. Cognition & Aging

4.1. What happens? MILD cognitive decline starting in the 5th & 6th decades of life

4.2. Well-learned information (such as vocabulary, memory of facts, and autobiographical memories) remain very stable

4.3. Processing speed begins to slow down after age 20-25

4.4. Crystallized intelligence remains stable

4.4.1. Items that are procedural in nature; well learned

4.5. Fluid intelligence declines

4.5.1. The ability to process information, solve problems

4.6. NORMAL Age Related Changes

4.6.1. Occasional bad decision

4.6.2. Missing a monthly bill

4.6.3. Forgetting the day but remembering it later

4.6.4. Forgetting a word

4.6.5. Forgetting why you walked into a room

4.6.6. Making a wrong turn

4.7. Abnormal Cognitive Changes

4.7.1. Poor decision making

4.7.2. Inability to manage a budget

4.7.3. Losing track of an entire season

4.7.4. Difficulty holding a conversation

4.7.5. Getting lost in a very familiar place

4.7.6. Being unable to retrace steps

4.7.7. MCI/Dementia (pathology)

4.8. In normal aging, procedural memory is SPARED

4.9. With aging, speed of acquiring information declines

4.10. Processing speed begins to decline in the 30's

4.11. Ability to remember childhood stories declines slowly

4.12. Changes in SLEEP

4.12.1. Earlier onset of sleep & wake

4.12.2. Less sleep

4.12.3. Lighter sleep stages, making older individuals lighter sleepers

5. Definitions

5.1. Brain reserve: the STRUCTURAL characteristics of the brain

5.2. Brain maintenance: refers to the process of maintaining or even enhancing the brain through experiences

5.3. Brain resistance: the brain's ability to resist against pathology

5.4. Brain resilience: how the brain copes pathology once it is present