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1. The American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Association for Educational Research (AERA) represent the field of educational psychology in the USA.

2. The main focus of educational psychology is on individuals and their development in educational settings.

3. According to the pedagogical perspective, educational psychology differs from most fields of psychology.

4. Cron bach's (1951) article on the internal structure of tests and the derivation of the alpha coefficient as an internal measure Reliability and the dissertation by Henry Kaiser (1958) that provided the basis for an orthogonal rotation procedure in factor analysis are among the most cited in this field.

5. The field of educational psychology is shaped by sub-disciplines such as sociology, linguistics, the sciences, philosophy, and the associated fields of psychology.


6.1. General Ideas

6.1.1. The critical paradigm shifted from behaviorism to cognitive psychology.

6.1.2. Analytical tools such as exploratory data analysis (Jaeger and Bond, 1996) and design experiments (Brown, 1992) emerged.

6.1.3. Sociocultural and cross-cultural contexts were introduced as important factors influencing learning and cognition (Vygosky theory).

6.1.4. Instructional theory and innovations helped introduce and transform Piaget's ideas into works on children's thinking.

6.1.5. Theories of motivation and its effect on cognition, learning, and social relations have also been more prominent.

6.1.6. Behaviorism and then the cognitive revolution drove change in the field.

6.2. Distinctiveness of This Volume

6.2.1. Contextual factors that will influence the evolution of the role of educational psychology in educational practice are the Internet, the significant number of people who will go through formal teacher training, starting a career, and finally the policy community that will have an impact on funding. of research programs.


7.1. General Ideas

7.1.1. The focus of this section is on cognitive processes within the learner and teacher.

7.1.2. This work focuses on individual differences in intellectual processes, memory, metacognition, self-regulation, and motivation.

7.2. Contemporary Theories of Intelligence

7.2.1. Intelligence related abilities permeate many areas of society.

7.2.2. Sternberg concludes that societies often choose a similar set of criteria to classify people intellectually.

7.2.3. In the 20th century, intelligence tests have been developed based on cognitive and information processing theories of intelligence.

7.3. Memory and Information Processes

7.3.1. It seeks to build and manipulate mental representations that can be accessed and studied cognitive processes through physiological responses, introspective and observations.

7.3.2. Classical theorists understand the mind as a computer with the idea that it is like a complex machine that can be captured through increasingly complex algorithms.

7.3.3. Constructivist theorists understand the human mind as a place where students actively construct their own knowledge structures by integrating new information with old.

7.3.4. Meaningful learning is a process in which the student must actively participate in cognitive processing rather than passively receive or store information.

7.3.5. Contributions to information processing are reviewed in three content areas: reading, writing, and math learning.

7.4. Self-Regulation and Learning

7.4.1. Schunk and Zimmerman suggest that students are actively building and exerting control over their learning and social goals.

7.5. Metacognition and Learning

7.5.1. There are clear distinctions between metacognition and self-regulation.

7.5.2. The empirical work has been done with authentic academic tasks such as reading, writing, and problem solving in science and math.

7.6. Motivation and Learning

7.6.1. The four motivational outcomes include: A). Why individuals choose one activity over another. B). Why individuals become more or less involved in a task either overtly. C). Why individuals persist on a task or are willing to try hard. D). What motivational constructs contribute to learning and achievement.

7.6.2. The three key constructs are organized into expectation, value, and affective components of motivation.


8.1. Sociocultural Contexts for Teaching and Learning

8.1.1. The concepts of internal dialogue and verbal mediation of behavior have a significant influence in the field of learning and also in the emerging field of cognitive behavior modification.

8.1.2. The role of Vygotsky's work and theories for educational reform in regard to special needs, dynamic assessment, and collaborative efforts in children's education are highlighted.

8.2. Teaching Processes in Elementary and Secondary Education

8.2.1. Teachers are expected to be experts in classroom management, curriculum, and instruction. Also creating physically and psychologically motivating classroom environments for an effective transmission of knowledge.

8.2.2. The traditional approach is teacher-led didactic instruction, along with questions, explanations, and teacher interactions, and feedback to students.

8.2.3. The constructivist approach focuses on discovery learning, problem solving, and related activities that challenge and actively involve students in the learning enterprise.

8.3. Cooperative Learning

8.3.1. Research conducted over the past decade has focused on how to structure interactions and incentives between students in cooperative groups.

8.3.2. Cooperative learning is most effective when groups are recognized or rewarded for their individual and group learning goals.

8.4. Relationships Between Teachers and Children

8.4.1. Child-teacher relationships involve the study of verbal and non-verbal communication to exchange information, biologically determined characteristics and attributes of individuals, and the views of individuals on the relationship and interaction.

8.4.2. Relationships have a positive and reciprocal effect on student learning, achievement, enjoyment, participation, and retention in school, as well as on the sense of well-being, effectiveness, job satisfaction, and retention of teachers teaching.

8.5. School Adjustment

8.5.1. Motivation of social goal persuit, behavioural competence and interpersonal relatioships, socially adjusted individuals are able to set and achieve personally valued goals

8.6. Gender Issues in the Classroom


9.1. Early childhood ecucation

9.1.1. Research in early childhood education has contributed to a new understanding of preschool learning and development and the settings in which young children participate.

9.2. psychology of literacy and literacy instruction

9.2.1. Key issues associated with the preschool years include the study of early adult-child interactions that promote emergent literacy and the study of phonemic awareness.

9.3. Mathematics learnig

9.3.1. The role of inscription systems or marks on paper and other media is described as a mediator to mathematics learning.

9.4. Computers, the Internet, and New Media Technologies for Learning

9.4.1. These perspectives independently have viewed the computer as an information source, as a curriculum domain, as a communication medium, as a cognitive tool, as an alternative learning environment, as a learning partner, as means of scaffolding learning, and most recently as a perspectivity tool.


10.1. School Psychology

10.1.1. school psychology has been directed by the needs of exceptional children in school settings and the guidelines for the provision of services provided by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and other federal legislation.

10.2. Gifted Education Programs and Procedures

10.2.1. Gifted students area heterogeneous group whose members differ from each other in their developmental pathways and in their distinct profiles of abilities.

10.3. Learning disabilities

10.3.1. use of social skills instruction with appropriate inclusion of procedures to modify maladaptive behaviors.

10.4. School-related behaviour disorder

10.4.1. Instrumental to the provision of appropriate services is the utilization of well-researched interventions for the treatment of behavior disorders in children and adolescents in school settings.