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1. Adam Smith was the first economist to explain the workings of a modern economy in terms of specialization and the division of labour, efficiently market transactions, and an increase of productivity.

1.1. He advocated an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference.

2. England is the first country where industrial related productions have commenced. In the late of the 18th and in the beginning of the 19th century.

2.1. There were enormous socio-economic changes in England which collectively known as the Industrial Revolution

3. Was the transition from human and animal labour technology into machinery, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools.

3.1. is an important historical process in local, regional, national, continental and global contexts.

3.2. Due to the IR social, cultural, political and geopolitical progress happened, which drive economic transformation from an agrarian to an industrial economy, in Europe and in the North America.

4. Was based on a surplus of cheap labour and the creation of good quality items for the rich people who owned the land.

4.1. Metal was worked manually minimum using the basic hand tools, such as hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels


5.1. The inventors, skilled craftsmen, financiers, merchants, and the owners of the new mills and mines had formed the IR. Investment in local improvement of roads, bridges, canals, dock works, and later railroads had developed England

5.2. During the IR child and infant mortality rate decreased and fertility rate increased due to the development of medical science, improvement of sanitary system and economic development.


6.1. Wealthy landowners had bought their lands from the village farmers and enclosed their land with fences, and cultivated in the larger fields.

6.2. Wealthy landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities to work industries.

6.3. Farmers used new technologies, such as seed drill and Dutch plough which contained iron parts, and the threshing machine.


7.1. During the IR there were enormous economic, social and political changes, such as advances in agriculture and transportation, huge production of goods, expansion of global trade, increase of employment, creation of earning source for women and children, change in standard of living, increase accumulation of information, motivation of nationalism and imperialism, development of democracy, capitalism and socialism, and depletion of environment.


8.1. Provided better quality of life for most people.

8.2. It shifted to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production.

8.3. Wealth of the nation had increased

8.4. It gave plentiful jobs and people could earn higher wages in factories than on farms and wore better clothing.

8.5. It also improved systems of transportation, communication and banking.

8.6. During the IR greatly increased the production of goods.

8.6.1. It raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes.

8.6.2. . It provided healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper, mass-produced clothing.

8.6.3. It expanded educational opportunities for rich families.


9.1. Some scholars revealed that the IR is linked with the increase of factories and the decline of skilled artisans and increase of unskilled workers in manufacturing.


9.2.1. is based on the doctrine of laissez-faire which is free trade without interference from the government.

9.2.2. By this doctrine factory owners had independence to arrange working conditions in whatever way they pleased.

9.2.3. As a result mercantilism took place in the society

9.3. Factory owners could hire and fire workers for any reason.

9.4. They were overworked but underpaid.

9.5. Children were employed more because of their small size to pass them through the narrow spaces.

9.6. Employers could pay women and children less than men even though they were expected to work just as hard.

9.7. Due to unhealthy and risky works many children suffered from long term illnesses, amputation, and even death

9.8. To attend workplace in time workers compelled to live a crowded slum district near the factory. They lost the independence.