Takeaways from this Week

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Takeaways from this Week by Mind Map: Takeaways from this Week

1. Try to point out when students stop to self-monitor so that students understand that self-monitoring is encouraged

2. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and reading Achievement

2.1. Children who elect to read voluntarily develop all sorts of reading proficiencies including but notlimited to reading fluently

2.2. The research on the relationship between reading volume and reading fluency

2.2.1. Repeated reading worked better than isolated training of word recognition (Dahl & Samuels, 1997)

2.2.1.1. Repeated reading intervention developed readers' reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension far better than the training to rapidly and accurately read words in isolation (Dahl & Samuels, 1997).

2.2.2. Automaticity theory of early reading development: Automaticity involved de eloping lower level processes (as in word recognition) to free up attentional space for higher-level processes (comprehension) (Laberge & Samuels, 1975)

2.2.3. Working to foster automatic word identification through lessons that feature primarily word level work is less effective at developing reading fluency than lessons that engage readers in repeated reading activities.

2.2.4. Repeated readings are an effective intervention for improving the reading fluency of both general and special education students (Therrien, 2003)

2.2.4.1. This study also suggests that repeated reading with an adult present proved to be more effective than repeated reading interventions where students were engaged with a peer/audio-tape recording

2.2.4.2. Using instructional level texts as opposed to the more difficult grade level texts produces faster and larger student fluency gains

2.2.5. Reducing time spent engaging in repeated readings and using that time to engage students in wide reading is powerful than repeated reading activities alone

2.2.5.1. Reducing the time spent on repeated reading while extending the time spent reading new texts developed fluency faster and developed both word recognition and comprehension better than a steady diet of repeated readings.

2.2.6. Improving reading fluency by expanding student reading volume is predicted by "instance theory" (Logan, 1988).

2.2.6.1. Assumes that encoding into memory is an obligatory, unavoidable consequence of attention.

2.2.6.1.1. Attending to a stimulus is sufficient to commit it to memory ; It may be remembered poorly or well, depending on the conditions of attention, but it will be encoded

2.2.6.2. Assumes that retrieval from memory is an obligatory, unavoidable consequence of attention

2.2.6.2.1. Attending to a stimulus is sufficient to retrieve from memory whatever has been associated with it in the past. Retrieval may not always be successful, but it occurs.

2.2.6.3. Assumes that each encounter with a stimulus is encoded, stored, and retrieved separately

3. Reading Lessons from Martin

3.1. Colorblindness: A problematic Perspective

3.1.1. Reading teachers who are allegedly "colorblind" often assume that learning to read is solely a cognitive process that is essentially the same for all children, forgetting the cultural dimensions that affect how students experience literacy learning at school

3.1.2. Colorblindness is problematic because it operates as unacknowledged racism and as a "self-deceptive screen to protect a status quo from which Whites as a group benefit"

3.1.3. When teachers ignore their students' racial identities and unique cultural beliefs, perceptions, bvalues, and worldviews, they miss opportunities to accelerate children's literacy development

3.2. The Reading Recovery Context

3.2.1. Short-term intervention for first-grade students who are experiencing difficulty with learning to read.

3.2.2. Children meet with a specially trained teacher for 30 minutes per day for a max of 20 weeks. Each lesson follows an established routine, including reading familiar books, reading recently introduced text, working with words, writing, and encountering new books

3.2.3. Goal: for students to develop effective reading and writing strategies that enable them to be successful in regular classroom programs

3.2.4. Reading Recovery teachers are told to focus on what children do with the text and how to create lesson individualize lesson plans based on that information, but this scaffolding focuses mainly on cognitive processing with less attention to linguistic and culturally differences

3.2.5. MICROAGGRESSION

3.3. Being responsive to students

3.3.1. Move beyond good intentions toward a careful analysis of your teaching

3.3.2. Focus on 1 or 2 kids who you find challenging to teach

3.3.3. Video or audio-record you lessons and note when a miscommunication occurs

3.3.4. Invite a colleague or parent to observe a particular child in the classroom and analyze what did and did not go well

3.3.5. Remember that culturally responsive is not a simple matter of good or bad teaching, but rather about adapting instruction to invite all children to learn in ways that are comfortable and engaging

3.3.6. Be willing to try new things, incorporate technology, and work with divergent media to meet the needs of your students

4. Finding Versus Fixing: Self-Monitoring for Reading Who Struggle

4.1. Self-Monitoring and Comprehension Monitoring

4.1.1. Cognitive Monitoring: broad term for higher-order cognitive functions that are part of the development of self-regulatory processes

4.1.2. Self Monitoring: Being aware when you successfully construct the author's message and when you notice something is amiss with meaning, structure, or graphophonic information

4.1.2.1. Mental activity of cognitive monitoring

4.1.3. Comprehension monitoring: When the teacher monitors for understanding and takes action when students experience dissonance

4.1.3.1. Term often used interchangeably with the term "self-monitoring"

4.1.3.2. Comprehension monitoring is more conscious, whereas early monitoring begins with the actions on text and then shifts to become a strategic activity.

4.1.4. Subroutines

4.1.4.1. Formation of subroutines driven by left-to-right eye movement combined with the need to construct meaning

4.1.4.2. Defined as cognitive pathways formed through engaging the senses and shifting perceptual systems involved in reading

4.1.4.3. Initially conscious and require working memory, but through successful use, they become unconscious and integrated into a complex system of strategic mental activity

4.2. Finding Versus Fixing: Research on Practice on Self-Monitoring

4.2.1. Most research on self-monitoring addresses comprehension monitoring

4.2.1.1. Research describing self-monitoring illustrates a variety of ways to examine reading performance

4.2.1.2. The methods of investigation include the use of wordless picture books and verbal story recall. words on cards in isolation, and interviews or inventories where children talk about their thinking or strategic processing.

4.2.1.3. Research on self-monitoring children's reading of continuous text is sparse-

4.2.2. Interesting Findings

4.2.2.1. High-progress readers in their 1st year of school self-corrected 1 in 3 errors while low-progress readers corrected 1 in 20 errors (Clay 1982)

4.2.2.2. Children who ended the year reading on level monitored 52.3% of errors and self-corrected 40.9% of errors. Students not on grade level monitored 15% fewer errors and self-corrected 17% fewer errors (McGee, Kim, Nelson, & Fried; 2015)

4.2.3. Teachers should reflect on supporting teacher moves to encourage self-monitoring and self-correction rather than focusing on find the error and fixing it for the child

4.3. Critical Aspects of Teaching for Self-Monitoring

4.3.1. Observing and hypothesizing

4.3.1.1. Observing informs teacher's intuitive understanding of cognitive processes and improves his/her teaching

4.3.1.2. Teachers who observe and hypothesize about how the child is working to inform their teaching are adaptive experts

4.3.1.3. Observing gives the teacher time for critical time to make teaching decisions and gives children time for critical independent decision making.

4.3.1.3.1. Observing gives the teacher the opportunity to see and mentally highlight patterns in students' reading, which makes productive teaching decisions clearer

4.3.1.4. "If teachers insist that every incorrect attempt is noticed and fixed, children may assume that perfection is the teacher’s goal and become reluctant to read for fear of being wrong."

4.3.2. Noticing and naming

4.3.2.1. "Through our noticing and naming language, children learn the significant features of the world, themselves, and others." (Johnson, 2004, p. 20)

4.3.2.2. Noticing and naming is drawing the child's attention to the pattern via language and/or movement (i.e. pointing to the text in some way). Through the interaction, teachers influence children's attention and action.

4.3.2.2.1. Noticing and naming helps create the mental decisions or strategic actions children make about text while reading

4.3.2.3. Noticing and naming monitoring NOT naming an error or pointing out that the reader gets a word wrong or right

4.3.2.3.1. It IS named when teachers show joy at children's discoveries, regardless of the accuracy of the reading

4.3.3. Agency and becoming strategic

4.3.3.1. Teaching for agency and becoming strategic are the direct actions the teacher takes to help students develop a sense of independence by learning to problem solve text

4.3.3.1.1. We as teachers are supposed to instill a sense of agency in our students so that they believe they can accomplish their goals

4.3.3.1.2. Agency is about how children come to understand that intentional actions influence their world. Children learn that they can change their world via their decisions and subsequent action.