Anthropology: Culture & Arts

Minji Han_Anth 306

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Anthropology: Culture & Arts by Mind Map: Anthropology: Culture & Arts

1. CH 1: The Origins of Art

1.1. "Art originated in Europe, but not, as Europeans tend to assume, with the cave paintings of Paleolithic. Rather, it began only a few hundred years ago as cultural traditions f distinguishing the creation of particular artefacts and activities that communicate significant ideas and emotions" - pg. 7

1.1.1. Art to be considered an emotional connection to ones experience or intension, was only an more recent thought. Rather artefacts of other world art was not considered art to the earlier Europeans.

1.2. "While the skills of making things could be loosely described as "arts", practiced by artisans, Renaissance painters and sculptors were increasingly treated as artists," who, analogous with poets, pursued an intellectual discipline under divine inspiration." - pg. 9

1.2.1. Slowly in the mid-fifteenth century to the mid-sixteenth century, the idea around artisans to artist formed and increased, as "artist" pursued intellectual disciplines. Rather than just the pursue of "making" or forming. Later building institutions, schools, styles, and academies.

2. CH 2: Classical Art

2.1. "Rather than being treated as works of art in any way comparable with the Greek sculpture, the Assyrian reliefs excited interest as illustrations of antiquity, identified with the contemporary exotic Orient from which they had been retrieved." - pg. 28

2.1.1. The acquisitions of monumental sculptures and images of one of the first archaeological investigations of the Ottomans. Rather than seeing them as art, rather pieces to showcase another world. One in which Europeans found exotic.

2.2. "The point was that art should idealize nature rather than portray it, being created by the mind free of the constraints imposed by society." - pg. 29

2.2.1. According to a German philosopher, Georg W.F. Hegel, instead of an idea created by the mind, must have some "spiritual essence". Rather than a random idea, nature is how we see or represent it, in this case, classical art is influenced by society.

3. CH 3: Oriental Art

3.1. "The "Oriental realm" represented the spirit in a less developed stage, lacking the self-awareness realized in full b contemporary Europe." -pg 39

3.1.1. The word "Orient" or "Oriental" was followed by a representation of exotic, or alien religions to the European perspective. Overall, "Oriental" realm or of other cultures was considered less compared to how Europeans held themselves in the hierarchy of development.

3.2. "As later "diffusionist" theories in anthropology, the culture achievements of non-western peoples were acknowledged only as poor imitations of Western antecedents, which had influenced them by tenuous or unspecified means; in this case a short-lived invasion that left no artisans or monuments in India." - pg. 44

3.2.1. Assumptions of Indian arts and workmanship was imitations European art. This was later debunked by art intellect Ernest Havell, who assessed Indian art to be a representation of spirit of divinity derived from ancient Vedic.

4. CH 4: Primitive Art

4.1. "From meaning "original", "pure", and "simple", the word was used from the end of the eighteenth century to describe early or aboriginal peoples." - pg. 53

4.1.1. The description of "Primitive" and its beginning use by the European anthropologist. A word used to make sense of their understanding of human development and separate themselves from contrast of those they considered less developed "savages".

4.2. "While most art historians and connoisseurs preferred to reserve the concept of art, particularly fine art, for expressive creativity in the Western Classical tradition, anthropologist seeking to explain the whole of humanity within a single evolutionary scheme persisted in applying it cross-culturally." - pg. 55

4.2.1. Anthropologist in the nineteenth century began considering and applying "privative" art or primitive culture in the grand scheme of humanity with a single evolutionary standpoint. A thought most art historians voided challenging the human development that linked to fine arts and practices.