Language Acquisition Concept Map

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Language Acquisition Concept Map by Mind Map: Language Acquisition Concept Map

1. Input Processing Model: The theory which language learners are thought to make sense out of input and how they get linguistic data from it.

1.1. Bill Van Patten is most known for his Input Processing theory in second language acquisition.

1.1.1. According to Van Patten, language acquisition occurs one way and all learners undergo it. Learners must have exposure to communicative input and process it in order to build output procedures needed to interact with others. This theory is essential for acquiring knowledge of semantics. Where students will need to make meaning of words, phrases, and sentences. Ex: Homophones, words that sound the same but have different meanings. Language learners would need to hear and use homophones to distinguish meanings of the words with the same sounds. Essential for acquiring syntax. Syntax helps students understand who, what, where, when and how. Ex: Dad gave the book to mom. Syntax is knowing that Dad is the subject, gave is the verb, and Mom is who dad is giving the book to without necessarily knowing the grammatical rules. Essential for acquiring phonological awareness, as this is the study of sounds, and input and output is how students acquire their knowledge of the system of sounds. Ex: Teacher asking a student to blend phonemes to say the word. /c/ /a/ /t/ put it together what do I get? cat.

2. Monitor Model: Compiled from 5 interrelated hypotheses, it is acquisition language theory that derives from input.

2.1. Created by Stephen Krashen a language acquisition theorist, he believes that the combination of all 5 hypotheses are essential to second language acquisition.

2.1.1. According to Krashen second language acquisition requires 1. Acquisition Learning Hypothesis- the belief that language acquisition is a subconscious process; 2. Natural Order hypothesis- language acquisition occurs in a predictable order; 3. Monitor Hypothesis- one can use learned language to monitor what they have acquired then correct errors; 4. Comprehension Hypothesis- acquiring language and literacy comes from consciously learning about language not memorizing grammar rules and vocabulary; 5. Affective Filter Hypothesis- the student's affect influence what is effectively taken in when exposed to language inputs. Krashen's theory is criticized for not focusing on direct instruction and for downplaying the importance of production. Therefore, the language elements that are best learned using this model are Phonology and Semantics. Ex: Phonology, again students are taught the building blocks of sounds in the English language, this directly fits the Natural Order Hypothesis, as sounds are the first to be learned. Also, as students progress they could begin to monitor their spoken language by applying the knowledge acquired from sounds. EX. Semantics again is the study of meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, so all 5 hypotheses within the monitor work cohesively to help students acquire and make meaning of words they may hear, without the use of direct instruction of words.

3. Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding: The theory of teaching within the space where children can reach a higher level of knowledge and reference with support of an adult or knowledgeable person.

3.1. Developed by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who is most notably known for his work on psychological development in children.

3.1.1. This theory of learning and development focuses on the ideas of a student's potential development, learning as a social process, and scaffolding. This theory includes the idea of the 5 communication skills for ELLs: 1. Elaborating and Clarifying; 2. Supporting ideas with evidence; 3: Building on or Challenging ideas; 4. Paraphrasing; 5. Synthesizing. Because of this the Zone of Proximal Development supports all language elements. EX: In upper elementary students phonology and morphology should be developed and within the student's independent zone, to scaffold on top of this would be Lexicon, the vocabulary language. Lexicon involves sounds and their sequencing (building on phonology), it meanings (building on semantics). its category (building on syntax), and how related words are formed (building on morphology). EX: Spelling, for emergent bilinguals spelling rules could be difficult to recall and acquire, therefore falling within that ZPD. So teachers will need to be directly involved in their EL learner's acquisition of the spelling process until they reach their learning potential.

3.1.2. Potential Development: the space between a learner's current understanding and their potential abilities. This area is the area beyond the level of independent skill or knowledge.

3.1.3. Learning as a social process: Because the Zone of proximal development is working beyond the independent level of learning, it requires a lot of collaboration, guidance, and modeling from peers and teachers. Vygotsky believes that this learning occurs within conversation interactions.

3.1.4. Scaffolding: The theory of constantly learning from building up content knowledge on top of itself until a student reaches independent potential and the building is completed, so the scaffold could then be removed. Its a serious of structural and procedural supports in teaching.