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ELEMENTS by Mind Map: ELEMENTS

1. Periodic Table

1.1. Groups

1.1.1. vertical columns

1.1.2. same number of electrons in outer shell

1.1.3. number of group = electrons in outer

1.1.4. similar properties

1.1.5. densities and melting points increase down any group

1.2. Periods

1.2.1. horizontal rows

1.2.2. number of shells the atom has

1.3. ↑ reactive → ↓ mp, bp

1.3.1. easier to break the force between the protons and electrons → electrons can move to another atom

1.4. more shells → bigger

1.5. more protons → smaller

1.5.1. the force between the protons and electrons ↑

2. Metals

2.1. solids (except Hg)

2.2. high melting and boiling points

2.3. hard, dense

2.4. good conductors of heat and electricity

2.5. malleable (shape can be changed)

2.6. ductile (pull out into wires)

2.7. sonorous

2.8. grey (except gold and copper), can be polished

3. Non-metals

3.1. solids/liquids/gases

3.2. low melting and boiling points

3.3. soft, brittle, low density

3.4. insulators (except graphite)

3.5. poor thermal conductors

3.6. colourful, dull

3.7. not sonorous

4. Metalloids

4.1. look like metal

4.2. brittle

4.3. semiconductors (silicon)

5. Alkali Metals - Group I

5.1. soft solids, can be cut

5.2. highly reactive (water, oxygen)

5.3. stored in oil

5.4. light grey, silvery surface, quickly tarnishes

5.5. metals + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen

5.6. reactivity increases down the group

5.7. most reactive: caesium (Cs)

6. Halogens - Group VII

6.1. most reactive non-metals

6.2. reactivity ↓ down the group

6.2.1. change from gas to solid

6.3. mp, bp ↑ down the group

6.4. poisonous, strong smell

6.5. diatomic molecules

6.6. + hydrogen → strong acids

6.6.1. HCl, HBr, HI

6.7. + metals → metal halides (salts)

7. Bondings

7.1. Ionic bonding

7.1.1. metal + non-metal

7.1.2. transfer electrons

7.1.3. positive metal ions and negative non-metal ions hold by electrostatic force

7.1.4. giant ionic structure

7.1.4.1. each ion surrounded by opposite charged ion

7.1.5. strong, ↑ ionic charges → ↑ ionic bonding → ↑ heat to break

7.1.6. brittle

7.1.6.1. when hit, a layer shifted → same charges line up and repel

7.2. Covalent bonding

7.2.1. non-metal + non-metal

7.2.2. share electrons

7.2.3. simple covalent structure

7.2.3.1. low mp, bp

7.2.3.1.1. force between molecules weak → easy to separate

7.2.3.2. liquids/gases

7.2.3.3. soft, brittle

7.2.3.4. insulators

7.2.4. giant covalent structure

7.2.4.1. hard

7.2.4.2. ↑ mp, bp

7.2.4.3. diamond

7.2.4.4. graphite

7.2.4.4.1. soft, slippery → used as lubricant

7.2.4.4.2. conduct electricity

7.3. Metallic bonding

7.3.1. metal + metal

7.3.2. electrostatic force between the delocalised electrons and positive metal ions

7.3.3. strong bonds, hard to break

7.3.4. malleable

7.3.4.1. layers slide over each other without breaking the bond

8. Noble gas - Group VIII/0

8.1. don't react (except Xe, Kr + F2, O2, Cl2)

8.2. invisible gases

8.3. extremely stable

8.4. ↓ mp, bp