CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY by Mind Map: CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1. CH 1: Anthropology for the 21st Century

1.1. "In countries from Pakistan to Peru, rural workers migrate to urban areas seeking to improve their lives and the lives of their families back home." (Guest 22)

1.1.1. Migration is a building bridge between distant parts of the world. Because of this, people from around the world are given many opportunities to provide for themselves and others.

1.2. "... anthropology offers the opportunity to unlock out ability to imagine, sere, and analyze the incredible diversity of human cultures. It also enables us to avoid the tendencies of ethnocentrism to use our own cultural norms to judge the cultural beliefs and practices of others." (Guest 11)

1.2.1. In many parts of Asia, it is customary to eat with chopsticks. They may find it odd for people in other societies to eat with forks and spoons.

2. CH 2: Culture

2.1. "Cultural norms may be widely accepted, but they may also be debated, challenged, and changed, particularly when norms enforced by a dominant group disadvantage or oppress a minority within the population."(Guest 38)

2.1.1. The Stonewall riots were a serious of riots by the LGBTQ community in order to install gay rights. There are still many cultures today who are against gay rights but society is constantly changing what societal norms are.

2.2. "Many key cultural rituals now focus on consumption." (Guest 55)

2.2.1. During holidays like Valentine's day, Christmas, Mother's day, there are many promotions and sales for consumers to purchase for others even in times where we are tight on money.

3. CH 4: Language

3.1. "... Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - proposed that languages establish certain mental categories, or classification of reality, almost like a grammar for organizing the worldview that in turn shapes peoples' ways it perceiving the world..." (Guest 100)

3.1.1. The Hopi, a Native American group, combines past and present into one and Whorf suggests that because of this, the Hopi's idea of time is different from the US culture.

3.2. "Words can carry profound meanings based on the history of their use in a culture." (Guest 102)

3.2.1. The N-Word has been used as a negative and derogatory term for African Americans since it is a symbol of white power, slavery, racism and threat to violence.

4. CH 7: Gender

4.1. "Gender enculturation in sports and physical play begins early and happens in varied settings." (Guest 187)

4.1.1. Landers and Fine found that in T-ball boys frequently received coaching, advice and more words of praise while girls' mistakes went uncorrected. Unfortunately, parents support this training and opportunity. We learn from our parents and some might continue this idea when they are older and have children of their own.

4.2. "Hirjas are religious followers of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Bahuchara Mata, who is often depicted and described as transgender." (Guest 192)

4.2.1. Hirjas are viewed as neither man or woman and because of their transgression of cultural and religious boundaries, they are both feared and revered. They also challenge the idea of masculinity and femininity.

5. CH 8: Sexuality

5.1. "Wekker's study focuses on mati - women who form intimate spiritual, emotional, and sexual relationships with other women." (Guest 217)

5.1.1. Unlike Western cultures, who itch for a long-term partner, Mati's have this way of identifying themselves because they rather choose a "visiting" relationship rather than marriage in order to maintain their independence.

5.2. "... commitment ceremonies, holy unions, and weddings were a form of resistance against the cultural norms and legal standard that denied gay men and lesbians the recognition of their lives and loves." (Guest 225)

5.2.1. The community expressed their anger and sorrow and refused to be mistreated. These ceremonies was a way for them to feel recognized, supported and to celebrate with their communities. Today, US marriage patterns are shifting rapidly.

6. CH 13: Religion

6.1. "French ethnographer and folkist Arnold van Gennep first theorized a category of ritual called rites of passage that enacts a change of status from one life stage to another, either for an individual or for a group." (Guest 377)

6.1.1. Satere-Maw boys wear gloves filled with venomous ants for 10 min and endure pain and paralysis for another 24 hours; boys must under the trial 20 times to be considered men.

6.2. "His (Max Weber) book Sociology of Religion was the first sociological attempt to compare world's religions. In it, Weber suggested that the Asian religious beliefs and ethical systems had stood in the way of capitalist economic growth..." (Guest 382)

6.2.1. Every religion is different and religion can effect cultural and cultural reflects a counties economic growth. According to an articled titled "Religious and Economic Growth" by Les Picker it states that increase in church attendance tend to reduce economic growth.