Secondary Assessment

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Secondary Assessment by Mind Map: Secondary Assessment

1. Vital Signs Assessment

1.1. Level of Consciousness (LOC)

1.1.1. Conscious, Responsive Victims, ask:

1.1.1.1. Primary questions: Open your eyes, what is your name? Can you move your fingers? Secondary questions: Where are you? What day is it? Can you tell me what happened?

1.1.1.1.1. Victim is conscious and alert if:

1.1.1.1.2. LOC conscious and confused if the victim

1.1.2. For unconscious, unresponsive victims, look for:

1.1.2.1. LOC unconscious and responsive

1.1.2.1.1. When they react to either voice or pain, opens eyes

1.1.2.2. LOC unconscious and unresponsive

1.1.2.2.1. When there's no response to any stimuli

1.2. Pupils

1.2.1. Are the pupils big or small?

1.2.2. Are the pupils the same size?

1.2.3. Are the pupils reactive?

1.2.3.1. Check one eye at a time

1.2.3.1.1. flash a light on their eyes, does the pupils get smaller?

1.2.4. Any bruising?

1.3. Skin

1.3.1. Check the skin temperature?

1.3.1.1. Hot? Warm? Cool? Cold?

1.3.2. Moisture

1.3.2.1. Check for signs of profuse sweating

1.3.2.2. Wet-clammy skin, dry skin or normal skin?

1.3.3. Check the victim's skin colour

1.3.3.1. Pale? Ashen, red-flushed or normal?

1.4. Breathing

1.4.1. Count number of breathes in 15 seconds and figure out number of breathes per minute

1.4.1.1. Is it normal rate?

1.4.1.1.1. Adults 12 -20 per minute

1.4.1.1.2. Children 12 - 30 per minute

1.4.1.1.3. Infants 20 - 30+ per minute

1.4.2. Rhythm, is the victim breathing too fast? Too slow? Regular? Irregular?

1.4.3. Check the victim's breathe depth

1.4.3.1. Deep or shallow breathes?

1.4.4. Check the breathing sounds

1.4.4.1. Wheezing? Rasping? Gurgling? Any signs of pain?

1.5. Pulse

1.5.1. Check for beats per minute by counting beats for the first 15 seconds and then multiply by 4 to get beats per mionute

1.5.1.1. is it normal?

1.5.1.1.1. Adults: 60 - 100 beats per minute

1.5.1.1.2. Children: 80 - 100 beats per minute

1.5.1.1.3. Infants: 100+ per minute

1.5.2. Rhythm

1.5.2.1. Regular? Irregular?

1.5.3. Does the victim have strong pulse or weak pulse?

2. History Assessment

2.1. Symptoms

2.1.1. How does the victim feel? Is the condition improving? If the condition is improving, no further procedures needed, if not, continue with the history assessment.

2.2. Allergies

2.2.1. Ask the victim if he/she have any allergies.

2.3. Medications

2.3.1. Ask the victim is she have, have taken, or should take the medication.

2.4. Past History

2.4.1. Ask the victim if the situation has happened before.

2.5. Last Meal

2.5.1. Ask the victim what and when did he/she eat or drink.

2.6. Events prior/Proceeding

2.6.1. Ask the victim what he/she were doing prior to the incident.

3. Head to Toe Assessment

3.1. Possible spinal injury?

3.1.1. Secure head to prevent movement of the head and spine

3.2. Ask for permission to touch and examine the body if the victim is responsive

3.2.1. Once permission is granted

3.2.1.1. Clearly indicate what you are going to do

3.2.1.1.1. For example: "I'm going to press down on your ribs to check if everything is OKAY"

3.3. If the victim is unconscious

3.3.1. Talk aloud about what you are doing for recording purposes, to tell the EMS and bystanders.

3.4. Look for signs and symptoms such as

3.4.1. Bumps, bruises, blood, or other fluids, deformity, ability to move and temperature differences.

3.4.2. Are there any pain?

3.4.2.1. Does the victim say ouch or does he/she react to the pain when certain areas are pressed?

3.4.3. Is there good circulation of the distal limbs

3.4.3.1. No

3.4.3.1.1. Remove anything that's blocking the circulation such as ankle brace, tight belt, knee brace etc.

3.4.3.2. Yes

3.4.3.2.1. How much blood is flowing to the hands and feet?

3.4.4. Check for distal sensations

3.4.4.1. Squeeze, pinch or lightly brush a toe or finger

3.4.4.1.1. distal sensation is present if the victim responds to it

3.4.4.2. Ask the victim is he/she feels any tingling or numbness in the toes or fingers

3.4.4.2.1. If no tingling or numbness, then squeeze or pinch and ask if the victim can feel it