♟ Chess Leonard

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
♟ Chess Leonard by Mind Map: ♟ Chess Leonard

1. OTHER

1.1. OPENINGS (A-Z)

1.2. OPENINGS (%)

1.3. CHESSMAP (IMAGES)

1.3.1. PART 1: KPO (King's Pawn Openings)

1.3.1.1. KPO 1.e4

1.3.1.1.1. KPO:KP 1.e4 e5

1.3.1.1.2. KPO:D 1.e4 D

1.3.1.1.3. KPO:P 1.e4 P

1.3.2. PART 2: QPO (Queen's Pawn Openings)

1.3.2.1. QPO 1.d4

1.3.2.1.1. QPO:QP 1.d4 d5

1.3.2.1.2. QPO:D 1.d4 D

1.3.2.1.3. QPO:P 1.d4 P

1.3.3. PART 3: OO (Other Openings)

1.3.3.1. OO 1.D

1.3.3.1.1. OO: VAN GEET 1.Nc3

1.3.3.1.2. OO: RETI OPENING 1.Nf3

1.3.3.2. OO 1.P

1.3.3.2.1. OO: NIMZO-LARSEN ATTACK 1.b3

1.3.3.2.2. OO: POLISH OPENING 1.b4

1.3.3.2.3. OO: ENGLISH OPENING 1.c4

1.3.3.2.4. OO: BIRD'S OPENING 1.f4

1.3.3.2.5. OO: KING'S FIANCHETTO OPENING 1.g3

2. I. OPENINGS

2.1. A. E4 OPENINGS

2.1.1. RUY LOPEZ OPENING (3.Bb5)

2.1.1.1. Ruy Lopez1.e4 e52.Nf3 Nc63.Bb5

2.1.2. ITALIAN OPENING (3. Bc4)

2.1.2.1. Italian Opening1.e4 e52.Nf3 Nc63. Bc4 

2.1.3. FOUR KNIGHTS OPENING (3. Nc3 Nf6)

2.1.3.1. Four Knights Opening1.e4 e52.Nf3 Nc63. Nc3 Nf6 

2.1.4. VIENNA OPENING (2.Nc3)

2.1.4.1. Vienna Opening1.e4 e52.Nc3 

2.1.4.1.1. Vienna Gambit1.e4 e52.Nc3 Nf63.f4

2.1.5. VIENNA GAMBIT (3.f4)

2.1.5.1. Vienna Gambit1.e4 e52.Nc3 Nf63.f4

2.1.6. SICILIAN DEFENSE (c5)

2.1.6.1. Sicilian Defense: Open1.e4 c52.Nf3 

2.1.6.1.1. Sicilian Defense: Old Sicilian Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 Nc6

2.1.6.1.2. Sicilian Defense: Open Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4

2.1.6.1.3. Sicilian Defense: Hyperaccelerated Dragon Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 g6

2.1.6.1.4. Sicilian Defense: Nimzowitsch Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 Nf6

2.1.6.1.5. Sicilian Defense: French Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 e6

2.1.6.1.6. Sicilian Defense: O'Kelly Variation1.e4 c52.Nf3 a6

2.1.6.2. Sicilian Defense: Closed1.e4 c52.Nc3

2.1.6.3. Sicilian Defense: Alapin Variation1.e4 c52.c4

2.1.6.4. Sicilian Defense: Keres Variation1.e4 c52.Ne2

2.1.7. CARO-KANN DEFENSE (c6)

2.1.7.1. Caro-Kann Defense: Main Line1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4

2.1.7.1.1. Caro-Kann Defense: Classical Variation1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5

2.1.7.2. Caro-Kann Defense: Advance Variation (Closed)1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.e5

2.1.7.3. Caro-Kann Defense: Exchange Variation (Open)1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.exd5

2.1.7.3.1. Caro-Kann Defense: Exchange, Panov Attack1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.exd5 cxd5 4.c4

2.1.7.4. Caro-Kann Defense: Modern Variation1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.Nd2

2.1.7.5. Caro-Kann Defense: Maroczy Variation1.e4 c62.d4 d5 3.f3

2.1.8. FRENCH DEFENSE (e6)

2.1.8.1. French Defense Main line (3.Nc3)1.e4 e62.d4 d53.Nc3

2.1.8.1.1. French Defense Main line (Winawer Variation)1.e4 e62.d4 d53.Nc3 Bb4

2.1.8.1.2. French Defense Main line (Classical Variation)1.e4 e62.d4 d53.Nc3 Nf6

2.1.8.2. French Defense Advance Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.e5

2.1.8.2.1. French Defense Advance Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.e5 h64.f4 a65.f5

2.1.8.3. French Defense Exchange Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.exd5

2.1.8.3.1. French Defense Exchange Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.exd5 exd5

2.1.8.4. French Defense Tarrasch Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.Nd2

2.1.8.4.1. French Defense Tarrasch Variation1.e4 e62.d4 d53.Nd2 Nf64.e5

2.1.9. SCANDINAVIAN DEFENSE (d5)

2.1.10. PIRC DEFENSE (d6)

2.1.10.1. Pirc Defense:1.e4 d6

2.1.10.1.1. Pirc Defense: Main Line1.e4 d62.c4 Nf63.Nc3 g6

2.1.11. ALEKHINE DEFENSE (Nf6)

2.1.12. SCOTCH OPENING (3.d4)

2.1.12.1. Scotch Opening1.e4 e52.Nf3 Nc63.d4 

2.2. B. D4 OPENINGS

2.2.1. QUEEN'S GAMBIT OPENING (2.c4)

2.2.1.1. Queens Gambit1.d4 d52.c4

2.2.1.1.1. Queens Gambit: Declined ("QGD")1.d4 d52.c4 e6

2.2.1.1.2. Queens Gambit: Accepted1.d4 d52.c4 dxc4

2.2.2. LONDON OPENING

2.2.3. TROMPOWSKY ATTACK

2.2.4. BENKO GAMBIT

2.2.5. SLAV DEFENSE (c6)

2.2.5.1. Slav Defense1.d4 d52.c4 c6

2.2.5.1.1. Slav Defense: Modern Line1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3

2.2.6. KING'S INDIAN DEFENSE

2.2.7. NIMZO-INDIAN DEFENSE

2.2.7.1. Nimzo-Indian Defense1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4

2.2.7.1.1. Nimzo-Indian Defense: Normal Line (Rubenstein)1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3

2.2.8. QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE

2.2.9. BOGO-INDIAN DEFENSE

2.2.10. GRUNFELD DEFENSE

2.2.10.1. Grunfeld Defense1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5

2.2.10.1.1. Grunfeld Defense: Exchange Variation1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5

2.2.10.1.2. Grunfeld Defense: Three Knights Variation1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3

2.2.11. DUTCH DEFENSE

2.2.12. BENONI DEFENSE

2.3. C. OTHER OPENINGS

2.4. D. GAMBITS

2.4.1. E4 GAMBITS

2.4.1.1. FRIED LIVER ATTACK

2.4.1.2. DANISH GAMBIT

2.4.1.3. VIENNA GAMBIT

2.4.1.4. COPYCAT GAMBIT

2.4.1.5. KING'S GAMBIT

2.4.2. D4 GAMBITS

2.4.2.1. QUEEN'S GAMBIT (2.c4)

2.4.2.1.1. Queens Gambit1.d4 d52.c4

2.4.2.2. BENKO GAMBIT

2.4.3. OTHER GAMBITS

3. CHEATSHEET (BRIEF)

3.1. KPO

3.1.1. 1.KPO

3.1.1.1. 1.KP KP

3.1.1.1.1. 1.KP KP 2.D

3.1.1.1.2. 1.KP KP 2.P

3.1.1.2. 1.KP D

3.1.1.3. 1.KP P

3.2. QPO

3.2.1. 1.QPO

3.2.1.1. 1.QP QP

3.2.1.1.1. 1.QP QP 2.D

3.2.1.1.2. 1.QP QP 2.P

3.2.1.2. 1.QP D

3.2.1.3. 1.QP P

3.3. OO

3.3.1. 1.OOP

3.3.2. 1.OOD

4. CHESSMAP (GUIDE)

4.1. PART 1: KPO (King's Pawn Openings)

4.1.1. KPO 1.e4

4.1.1.1. KPO:KP 1.e4 e5

4.1.1.1.1. KPO:KP:D 1.e4 e5 2.D

4.1.1.1.2. KPO:KP:P 1.e4 e5 2.P

4.1.1.2. KPO:D 1.e4 D

4.1.1.2.1. KPO: NIMZOWITSCH DEFENSE 1.e4 Nc6

4.1.1.2.2. KPO: ALEKHINE DEFENSE 1.e4 Nf6

4.1.1.3. KPO:P 1.e4 P

4.1.1.3.1. KPO: OWEN'S DEFENSE 1.e4 b6

4.1.1.3.2. KPO: CARO-KANN DEFENSE 1.e4 c6

4.1.1.3.3. KPO: SICILIAN DEFENSE 1.e4 c5

4.1.1.3.4. KPO: PIRC DEFENSE 1.e4 d6

4.1.1.3.5. KPO: SCANDINAVIAN DEFENSE 1.e4 d5

4.1.1.3.6. KPO: FRENCH DEFENSE 1.e4 e6

4.1.1.3.7. KPO: MODERN DEFENSE 1.e4 g6

4.2. PART 2: QPO (Queen's Pawn Openings)

4.2.1. QPO 1.d4

4.2.1.1. QPO:QP 1.d4 d5

4.2.1.1.1. QPO:QP:D 1.d4 d5 2.D

4.2.1.1.2. QPO:QP:P 1.d4 d5 2.P

4.2.1.2. QPO:D 1.d4 D

4.2.1.2.1. QPO: MIKENAS DEFENSE 1.d4 Nc6

4.2.1.2.2. QPO: INDIAN GAME 1.d4 Nf6

4.2.1.3. QPO:P 1.d4 P

4.2.1.3.1. QPO: ST. GEORGE DEFENSE 1.d4 a6

4.2.1.3.2. QPO: ENGLISH DEFENSE 1.d4 b6

4.2.1.3.3. QPO: POLISH DEFENSE 1.d4 b5

4.2.1.3.4. QPO: SLAV DEFENSE 1.d4 c6

4.2.1.3.5. QPO: OLD BENONI DEFENSE 1.d4 c5

4.2.1.3.6. QPO: PIRC DEFENSE 1.d4 d6

4.2.1.3.7. QPO: HORWITZ DEFENSE 1.d4 e6

4.2.1.3.8. QPO: ENGLUND GAMBIT 1.d4 e5

4.2.1.3.9. QPO: DUTCH DEFENSE 1.d4 f5

4.2.1.3.10. QPO: MODERN DEFENSE 1.d4 g6

4.3. PART 3: OO (Other Openings)

4.3.1. OO 1.D

4.3.1.1. OO: VAN GEET 1.Nc3

4.3.1.2. OO: RETI OPENING 1.Nf3

4.3.2. OO 1.P

4.3.2.1. OO: NIMZO-LARSEN ATTACK 1.b3

4.3.2.2. OO: POLISH OPENING 1.b4

4.3.2.3. OO: ENGLISH OPENING 1.c4

4.3.2.4. OO: BIRD'S OPENING 1.f4

4.3.2.5. OO: KING'S FIANCHETTO OPENING 1.g3

5. III. TACTICS

5.1. A. ATTACKING PIECES

5.1.1. "A piece is said to attack (or threaten) an opponent's piece if, in the next move, it could capture that piece. A piece is said to defend (or protect) a piece of the defender's color if, in case the defended piece were taken by the opponent, the defender could immediately recapture. Attacking a piece usually, but not always (see Sacrifice), forces the opponent to respond if the attacked piece is undefended, or if the attacking piece is of lower value than the one attacked. When the piece attacked is a king, then a player has exactly three options: capture the attacking piece; move the king to a free square; interpose another piece in between the two (if the attacker is not a knight and is not directly adjacent to the king attacked). When the piece attacked is not a king, a player has more options: capture the attacking piece; move the attacked piece to a free or covered square; move the attacked piece to a different attacked square, so you can choose where the capturing happens; interpose another piece in between the two (if the attacker is not a knight and is not directly adjacent to the piece attacked - attacking kings and pawns are adjacent always); cover the attacked piece, permitting an exchange of equal, greater, or lower value; pin the attacking piece so the capture becomes illegal, unprofitable, or less damaging; capture a different piece of the opponent; allow the piece attacked to be captured, a sacrifice, for some other tactical advantage; or for Tempo employ a zwischenzug (create a counter-threat of equal, greater, or lesser consequence)."

5.2. B. GAINING MATERIAL

5.2.1. "When a player is able to capture the opponent's piece(s) without losing any of their own (or losing a piece of lesser value), the player is said to have "won material"; i.e., the opponent will have fewer (or less valuable) pieces remaining on the board. The goal of each basic tactic is to win material. At the professional level, often the mere threat of material loss (i.e., an anticipated tactic) induces the opponent to pursue an alternative line. In amateur games, however, tactics often come to full fruition – unforeseen by the opponent and resulting in material gain and a corresponding, perhaps decisive, advantage. Material gain can be achieved by several different types of tactics."

5.2.2. DISCOVERED ATTACK:

5.2.2.1. A discovered attack is a move which allows an attack by another piece. A piece is moved away so as to allow the attack of a friendly bishop, rook or queen on an enemy piece. If the attacked piece is the king, the situation is referred to as a discovered check. Discovered attacks are powerful since the moved piece may be able to pose a second threat. A special case of a discovered check is a double check, where both the piece being unmasked and the piece being moved attack the enemy king. A double check always forces the opponent to move the king, since it is impossible to defend attacks from two directions in any other way.

5.2.3. FORK:

5.2.3.1. A fork is a move that uses one piece to attack two or more of the opponent's pieces simultaneously, with the aim to achieve material advantage, since the opponent can counter only one of the threats.[2] Knights are often used for forks, with their unique moving and jumping ability. A common situation is a knight played to c2 or c7, threatening both the enemy rook and king. Such forks checking a king are particularly effective, because the opponent is forced by the rules of chess to immediately remove the check to his king. The opponent cannot choose to defend the other piece, or use a zwischenzug to complicate the situation. Pawns can also be effective in forking. By moving a pawn forward, it can attack two pieces—one diagonally to the left, and another diagonally to the right. The queen is also an excellent forking piece, since she can move in eight different directions. However, a queen fork is only useful if both pieces are undefended, or if one is undefended and the other is the enemy's king. The queen is the most valuable attacking piece, so it is usually not profitable for her to capture a defended piece. Fork attacks can be either relative (meaning the attacked pieces comprise pawn[s], knight[s], bishop[s], rook[s], or queen[s]), or absolute (one of the attacked pieces is the enemy king, in check). The targets of a fork do not have to be pieces, although this is known as a double attack. One or more of the targets can be a mate threat (for example, forking a loose knight and setting up a battery of queen and bishop that creates a mate threat as well) or implied threat (for example, a knight move that forks a loose bishop and also threatens to fork enemy queen and rook).

5.2.4. PIN:

5.2.4.1. A pin is a move that inhibits an opponent piece from moving, because doing so would expose a more valuable (or vulnerable) piece behind it. Only bishops, rooks, and queens can perform a pin, since they can move more than one square in a straight line. If the pinned piece cannot move because doing so would produce check, the pin is called absolute. If moving the pinned piece would expose a non-king piece, the pin is called relative.

5.2.5. SKEWER:

5.2.5.1. A skewer is a move which attacks two pieces in a line, similar to a pin, except that the enemy piece of greater value is in front of the piece of lesser value. After the more valuable piece moves away, the lesser piece can be captured. Like pins, only queens, rooks, and bishops can perform the skewer, and skewer attacks can be either absolute (the more valuable piece in front is the king, in check) or relative (the piece in front is a non-king piece).

5.3. C. PAWNS

5.3.1. Pawns are the least valuable chess piece, so are often used to capture defended pieces. A single pawn typically forces a more powerful piece, such as a rook or a knight, to retreat. The ability to fork two enemy pieces by advancing a pawn is often a threat. Or a simple pawn move can reveal a discovered attack. When pawns are arranged on a diagonal, with each pawn guarded by the pawn behind it, they form a wall or pawn chain protecting any friendly pieces behind them. A weak pawn structure, with unprotected or isolated pawns ahead of more valuable pieces, can be a decisive weakness. A pawn that has advanced all the way to the opposite side of the board is promoted to any other piece except a king.

5.4. D. SACRIFICES

5.4.1. A sacrifice of some material is often necessary to throw the opponent's position out of balance, potentially gaining positional advantage. The sacrificed material is sometimes later offset with a consequent material gain. Pawn sacrifices in the opening are known as gambits; they are usually not intended for material gain, but rather to achieve a more active position. Direct attacks against the enemy king are often started by sacrifices. A common example is sacrificing a bishop on h2 or h7, checking the king, who usually must take the bishop. This allows the queen and knight to develop a fulminant attack.

5.5. E. ZUGZWANG

5.5.1. Zugzwang (German for the "compulsion to move") occurs when a player is forced to make an undesirable move. The player is put at a disadvantage because he would prefer to pass and make no move, but a move has to be made, all of which weaken his position. Situations involving zugzwang occur uncommonly, but when they do occur, it is almost always in the endgame, where there are fewer choices of available moves.

5.6. F. ZWISCHENZUG

5.6.1. Zwischenzug (German for "intermediate move") is a common tactic in which a player under threat, instead of directly countering, introduces an even more devastating threat. The tactic often involves a new attack against the opponent's queen or king. The opponent then may be forced to address the new threat, abandoning the earlier attack. The concept of a zwischenzug is often listed as a tactic, but might properly be called a counter-tactic instead. The effect of a zwischenzug is to change the status quo before a tactic can come to fruition. The near ubiquity of the zwischenzug makes long combinations all the more rare and impressive.

5.7. G. OTHER TACTICS:

5.7.1. Anti-computer chess Attraction Chess strategy Cross-check Decoy Deflection Desperado Interference Outline of chess: Chess tactics Overloading Pawn storm Pawn structure Tempo Triangulation Undermining Windmill Shogi tactics

6. II. PHASES

6.1. A. OPENING GAME

6.1.1. Fine, Reuben. Ideas Behind Chess Openings

6.1.1.1. PREFACE

6.1.1.2. CHAPTER I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

6.1.1.2.1. OPENING THEORY DEFINITE ASSUMPTIONS: “It is perhaps not generally realize that opening theory in chess proceeds on certain definite assumptions. They are simple enough and once learned they will never be forgotten. They are: 1. In the initial position White, because of the extra move, has a slight advantage. Consequently: 2. White’s problem in the opening is to secure the better position, while 3. Black’s problem is to secure equality.” (2)

6.1.1.2.2. THEORY OF OPENINGS: “The elaboration of these questions in each individual case is what is mean by ‘the theory of openings.’” (2)

6.1.1.2.3. BASIC PRINCIPLE: “The basic principle is that it is essential in the opening to develop all the pieces harmoniously and in such a way as to secure the most favorable position possible in the center.” (2)

6.1.1.2.4. NORMAL / ABNORMAL: “Throughout Practical Chess Openings and other similar treatises there is continual mention of ‘normal’ moves and ‘normal’ positions. This ‘normalcy’ arises in the following manner [2 etc 10 etc 4 etc]. . . . Any move which is in accordance with the basic principle is ‘normal’; any move which is not is ‘abnormal.’” (3)

6.1.1.2.5. NORMAL POSITION: “In almost all openings there is a well-defined series of normal moves which leads to what is usually called a ‘normal position.’ This normal position is the point of departure for further opening investigations.” (4)

6.1.1.2.6. THREE DEFINITE OPENING ASSUMPTIONS: “1. In the initial position White, because of the extra move, has a slight advantage. Consequently: 2. White’s problem in the opening is to secure the better position, while 3. Black’s problem is to secure equality.” (2)

6.1.1.2.7. TWO FUNDAMENTAL OPENING CONCEPTS: “There are two fundamental concepts in the opening: development and the center.” (2)

6.1.1.2.8. TEN PRACTICAL OPENING RULES: “More elaborately, there are ten practical rules which are usually worth sticking to, though the more expert player will be aware of the many exceptions. These rules are:” (2)

6.1.1.2.9. FOUR PAWN SACRIFICE REASONS: In number 10 we can further specify that for the offer of a Pawn there must be one of four reasons:” (3)

6.1.1.2.10. TWO MOVEMENT OPENING QUESTIONS: “Finally, it is worth remembering that there are two questions which must be answered for each move played:” (3)

6.1.1.2.11. FIVE POSITIONAL OPENING QUESTIONS: “It is important to be clear about the question of the evaluation of a position reached in the opening. This must, of course, be based on the general analysis of any position. Such general analysis involves five factors:” (5)

6.1.1.2.12. SACRIFICES / GAMBITS: “Sacrifices and gambits sometimes seem to violate sound opening procedure. This is in a sense true, since every sacrifice requires special justification. However, it is a well-known and daily established fact that under certain circumstances extra material is useless when it is hampered by an immobile position In such cases sacrifices are likewise perfectly normal.” (3-4)

6.1.1.3. CHAPTER II. KING PAWN OPENINGS

6.1.1.3.1. PART I: OPENINGS WITH 1 P—K4, P—K4

6.1.1.4. CHAPTER III. KING PAWN OPENINGS (PART II)

6.1.1.4.1. PART II: ALL REPLIES TO 1 P—K4 OTHER THAN 1 . . . P—K4

6.1.1.5. CHAPTER IV. QUEEN PAWN OPENINGS (PART I)

6.1.1.5.1. PART I: QUEEN’S GAMBIT AND MINOR OPENINGS WITH 1 P—Q4, P—Q4

6.1.1.6. CHAPTER V. QUEEN PAWN OPENINGS (PART II)

6.1.1.6.1. PART II: DEFENSES WHERE BLACK DOES NOT PLAY . . . P—Q4

6.1.1.7. CHAPTER VI. RETI AND ENGLISH OPENINGS

6.1.1.8. CHAPTER VII. BIRD’S OPENING AND NIMZOVITCH’S ATTACK

6.1.1.9. CHAPTER VIII. IRREGULAR OPENINGS

6.2. B. MIDDLE GAME

6.3. C. END GAME

7. IV. STRATEGY

7.1. A. PAWN SKELETONS:

7.1.1. PAWN SKELETONS:

7.1.1.1. "In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. Since pawns are the least mobile of the chess pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and thus largely determines the strategic nature of the position." (Wikipedia)

7.1.2. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF PAWN SKELETONS:

7.1.2.1. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF PAWN STRUCTURE: "Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated, doubled, or backward pawns and holes, once created, are usually permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid them (but there are exceptions—for instance see Boleslavsky hole below). In the absence of these structural weaknesses, it is not possible to assess a pawn formation as good or bad—much depends on the position of the pieces. The pawn formation does determine the overall strategies of the players to a large extent, however, even if arising from unrelated openings. Pawn formations symmetrical about a vertical line (such as the e5 Chain and the d5 Chain) may appear similar, but they tend to have entirely different characteristics because of the propensity of the kings to castle on the kingside. Pawn structures often transpose into one another, such as the Isolani into the Hanging pawns, and vice versa. Such transpositions must be considered carefully and often mark shifts in game strategy." (Wikipedia)

7.1.3. TENSION IN PAWN SKELETONS:

7.1.3.1. "Structures with mutually attacking pawns are said to have tension. They are ordinarily unstable and tend to transpose into a stable formation with a pawn push or exchange. Play often revolves around making the transposition happen under favorable circumstances. For instance, in the Queen's Gambit Declined, Black waits until White develops the king's bishop to make the d5xc4 capture, transposing to the Slav formation (see below)." (Wikipedia)

7.1.4. MAJOR PAWN SKELETONS (BY NAME):

7.1.4.1. CARO STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.1.1. Openings: Primary: Caro–Kann. Other: French, Scandinavian, Trompowsky (colors reversed), Alekhine's. Character: Slow-paced game. Themes for White: Outpost on e5, kingside space advantage, d4–d5 break, possibility of queenside majority in the endgame (typically after the exchange of White's d-pawn for Black's c-pawn). Themes for Black: Weakness of the d4-pawn, ...c6–c5 and ...e6–e5 breaks. The latter break is usually preferable, but harder for Black to achieve.

7.1.4.2. SLAV STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.2.1. Openings: Primary: Slav. Other: Catalan, Queen's Gambit Accepted, Queen's Gambit Declined, Nimzo-Indian, Colle System (with colors reversed), London System (with colors reversed), Trompowsky (colors reversed). Character: Slow-paced game. Themes for White: Pressure on the c-file, weakness of Black's c-pawn (either after Black's ...b7–b5 or after d4–d5xc6 in response to ...e6–e5), the d4–d5 break. Themes for Black: e6–e5 and c6–c5 breaks.

7.1.4.3. SICILIAN STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.3.1. SCILICIAN: SCHEVENINGEN STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.3.2. SICILIAN: DRAGON STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.3.3. SICILIAN: BOLESLAVSKY HOLE STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.4. MARÓCZY BIND STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.4.1. d6 MARÓCZY BIND STRUCTURE

7.1.4.4.2. e6 MARÓCZY BIND STRUCTURE

7.1.4.4.3. Openings: Primary: Sicilian, King's Indian Defence. Other: Symmetrical English, King's English (with colors reversed), Queen's Indian Defence, Nimzo-Indian Defence. Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: Nd4–c2–e3, fianchettoing one or both bishops, the Maróczy hop (Nc3–d5 followed by e4xd5 with terrific pressure on the e-file), kingside attack, c4–c5 and e4–e5 breaks. Themes for Black: b7–b5 break, f7–f5 break (especially with a fianchettoed king's bishop), d6–d5 break (prepared with ...e7–e6). The Maróczy bind, named after Géza Maróczy, has a fearsome reputation. Chess masters once believed that allowing the bind was a mistake as Black always gave White a significant advantage. Indeed, if Black does not quickly make a pawn break, their minor pieces will suffocate, with minor pieces lacking any squares to move to and possibly becoming cornered or pressed into a weak defense. Conversely, the formation takes time to set up and limits the activity of White's light-squared bishop, which can buy Black some breathing room to accomplish this break.

7.1.4.5. HEDGEHOG STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.5.1. Openings: Primary: Symmetrical English, Sicilian. Other: King's English (with colors reversed), King's Indian Defence (Sämisch), Queen's Indian Defense, Nimzo-Indian Defence. Character: Closed, Semi-open game. The Hedgehog is a formation similar to the Maróczy bind, and shares the strategic ideas with that formation. Typically, the Maróczy bind would transpose into the Hedgehog formation.

7.1.4.6. RAUZER STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.6.1. Openings: Primary: King's Indian, Old Indian (colors reversed), Ruy Lopez, Italian Game. Other: Ruy Lopez (colors reversed), Italian Game (colors reversed), Sicilian Kramnik. The notation in the rest of this section refers to the colors reversed version. Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: d6 weakness, c4–c5 push, a3–f8 diagonal, queenside pawn storm. Themes for Black: d4 weakness, a1–h8 diagonal, f4-square, kingside attack, trading pieces for a superior endgame. The Rauzer formation is named after Rauzer who introduced it in the Ruy Lopez. It can also rarely occur in the Ruy Lopez with colors reversed. It is considered to give Black excellent chances because d6 is much less of a hole than White's d4. If the black king's bishop is fianchettoed it is common to see it undeveloped to f8 to control the vital c5- and d6-squares, or remove White's dark-squared bishop, the guardian of the hole. The Rauzer formation is often misjudged by beginners. In the position on the left, White appears to have a development lead while Black's position appears to be riddled with holes. In reality, it is Black who stands clearly better, because White has no real way to improve their position while Black can improve by exploiting the d4-square (see complete game on Java (Applet) board).

7.1.4.7. BOLESLAVSKY WALL STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.7.1. Openings: Primary: King's Indian. Other: English, Pirc, Ruy Lopez, Philidor, Italian Game. Character: Semi-open game, slow buildup. Occurs after exchange of pawns on d4. Name given by Hans Kmoch. Themes for White: exploitation of d6 weakness, e4–e5 and c4–c5 breaks, minority attack with ...b2–b4–b5. Themes for Black: attacking the e4- and c4-pawns, d6–d5 and f7–f5 breaks, queenside play with ...a7–a5–a4. The wall is yet another structure that leaves Black with a d-pawn weakness, but prevents White from taking control of the center and gives Black active piece play and an opportunity to play on either side of the board.

7.1.4.8. d5 CHAIN STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.8.1. Openings: Primary: King's Indian, Pirc, Philidor. Other: Benoni, Ruy Lopez (Spanish), Trompowsky, English, Italian Game, Four Knights Game (Scotch variation) Character: Closed game with opposite side activity. Themes for White: Massive queenside space advantage, c2–c4–c5 break (optionally prepared with b2–b4), prophylaxis with ...g2–g4 (after f2–f3), f2–f4 break. Themes for Black: kingside attack, f7–f5 break, g7–g5–g4 break (after f2–f3), c7–c6 break, prophylaxis with ...c6–c5 or ...c7–c5 transposing to a full Benoni formation. The chain arises from a variety of openings but most commonly in the heavily analyzed King's Indian Classical variation. The theme is a race for a breakthrough on opposite flanks – Black must try to whip up a kingside attack before White's heavy pieces penetrate with devastating effect on the c-file. The position was thought to strongly favor White until a seminal game (Taimanov–Najdorf 1953) where Black introduced the maneuver ...Rf8–f7, ...Bg7–f8, ...Rf7–g7. When the chain arises in the Ruy Lopez, play is much slower with tempo being of little value and featuring piece maneuvering by both sides, Black focusing on the c7–c6 break and White often trying to play on the kingside with the f2–f4 break.

7.1.4.9. e5 CHAIN STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.9.1. Openings: Primary: French. Other: Nimzowitsch, Trompowsky, Caro–Kann, Bogo-Indian, London System, Colle System, Sicilian (Rossolimo, Alapin, Closed, O'Kelly), Nimzo–Larsen Attack (colors reversed). Character: Closed/semi-open but sharp game. Themes for White: kingside mating attack, f2–f4–f5 break. Themes for Black: Exchanging the hemmed-in queen's bishop, c7–c5 and f7–f6 breaks. Due to White's kingside space advantage and development advantage, Black must generate counterplay or be mated. Novices often lose to the sparkling Greek gift sacrifice. Attacking the head of the pawn chain with ...f7–f6 is seen as frequently as attacking its base, because it is harder for White to defend the head of the chain than in the d5 chain. In response to exf6, Black accepts a backward e6-pawn in exchange for freeing their position (the b8–h2 diagonal and the semi-open f-file) and the possibility of a further e6–e5 break. If White exchanges with d4xc5 it is called the Wedge formation. White gets an outpost on d4 and the possibility of exploiting the dark squares while Black gets an overextended e5 pawn to work on.

7.1.4.10. MODERN BENONI STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.10.1. Openings: Primary: Modern Benoni, Queen's Indian Defence, King's Indian Defence Modern Defence, Ruy Lopez, Italian Game. Other: Trompowsky, Ruy Lopez (colors reversed), Italian Game (colors reversed), Réti Opening (colors reversed), King's Indian Attack (colors reversed), Sicilian Defence (Moscow, Rossolimo). Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: Central pawn majority, e4–e5 break. Themes for Black: Queenside pawn majority.

7.1.4.11. GIUOCO PIANO: ISOLANI STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.11.1. Openings: Primary: Giuoco Piano. Other: French (Steiner, Exchange), Ruy Lopez (Berlin), Petrov, King's English, French (colors reversed), Sicilian Alapin (colors reversed). Character: Open game. Themes for White: Themes for Black: Blockading the isolani, trading pieces for a favorable endgame.

7.1.4.12. QUEEN'S GAMBIT: ISOLANI STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.12.1. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit. Other: French, Sicilian Alapin, Symmetrical English, Caro–Kann, Nimzo-Indian, Slav. Character: Open game. Themes for White: d4–d5 break, sacrifice of the isolani, outpost on e5, kingside attack. Themes for Black: Blockading the isolani, trading pieces for a favorable endgame. The isolani leads to lively play revolving around the d5-square. If Black can clamp down on the pawn, their positional strengths and threat of exchanges give them the advantage. If not, the threat of the d4–d5 break is ever-present, and the isolani can sometimes be sacrificed to unleash the potential of White's pieces, enabling White to whip up a whirlwind attack. Garry Kasparov is famous for the speculative d4–d5 sacrifice.

7.1.4.13. HANGING PAWNS STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.13.1. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined. Other: Queen's Indian Defense, Symmetrical English, Sicilian (Alapin). Character: Open game. Themes for White: Line opening advance in the center, kingside attack. Themes for Black: Forcing a pawn advance and blockading the pair, conversion to isolani. Like the isolani, the hanging pawns are a structural weakness but with them usually comes increased piece activity to compensate. The play revolves around Black trying to force one of the pawns to advance. If Black can establish a permanent blockade the game is positionally won. On the other hand, White aims to keep the pawns hanging, trying to generate a kingside attack leveraging off of their superior center control. Other themes for White include tactical possibilities and line opening breaks in the center.

7.1.4.14. CARLSBAD STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.14.1. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined. Other: Caro–Kann (colors reversed), Colle System (colors reversed), London System (colors reversed). Character: Semi-open game. Themes for White: Minority attack, e3–e4 break. Themes for Black: e4 outpost, kingside attack.

7.1.4.15. PANOV STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.15.1. Openings: Primary: Queen's Gambit Declined, Caro–Kann. Other: Alekhine Defense, QGD Tarrasch Defense (colors reversed), Symmetrical English, Symmetrical English (colors reversed). Character: Semi-open, dynamic game. Themes for White: Exploiting the dark squares, d6 outpost; queenside majority in the endgame, with an advanced pawn. Themes for Black: e4 outpost, kingside attack, White's overextended pawn, e6–e5 and b7–b5 breaks.

7.1.4.16. STONEWALL STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.16.1. Openings: Primary: Dutch Defense. Other: Colle System, Bird's Opening (with colors reversed). Character: Closed game, uncomplicated strategy. Themes: Exchanging the bad bishop, e4/e5 outposts, breaks on the c and g files. Players must carefully consider how to recapture on the e4/e5-square, since it alters the symmetric pawn formation and creates strategic subtleties.

7.1.4.17. BOTVINNIK SYSTEM STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.17.1. Openings: Primary: English, Dutch, King's Indian Attack. Other: Sicilian (Closed, Moscow), Vienna Game, Bishop's Opening. Character: Closed game, uncomplicated strategy. Themes: Exchanging the bad bishop, d4/d5 outposts, breaks on the b- and f-files. This structure appears in one of Botvinnik's treatments of the English. Players must carefully consider how to recapture on the d4/d5-square, since it alters the symmetric pawn formation and creates strategic subtleties. Adding the typical White fianchetto of the king's bishop to this structure provides significant pressure along the long diagonal, and usually prepares the f2–f4–f5 break.

7.1.4.18. CLOSED SICILIAN STRUCTURE:

7.1.4.18.1. Openings: Primary: Closed Sicilian, Closed English (colors reversed). Character: Closed, complicated position. Themes for White: kingside pawn storm, c2–c3 and d3–d4 break. Themes for Black: queenside pawn storm, a1–h8 diagonal.

7.1.5. MAJOR PAWN SKELETONS (BY FAMILY):

7.1.5.1. PAWN SPECIES

7.1.5.1.1. CHAINED PAWNS FAMILY:

7.1.5.1.2. ISOLATED PAWNS FAMILY:

7.1.5.1.3. HANGING PAWNS FAMILY:

7.1.5.1.4. DIAMOND PAWNS FAMILY:

7.1.5.2. OPENING SPECIES

7.1.5.2.1. CARO-SLAV FAMILY:

7.1.5.2.2. CARLSBAD FAMILY:

7.1.5.2.3. MARCÓCZY-HEDGEHOG FAMILY:

7.1.5.2.4. MODERN BENONI FAMILY:

7.1.5.2.5. PANOV FAMILY:

7.1.5.2.6. SICILIAN FAMILY:

7.2. B. TRANSPOSITIONS:

7.2.1. TRANSPOSITIONS:

7.2.1.1. TRANSPOSITION:

7.2.1.1.1. "In chess, an opening transposition occurs when a sequence of moves leads to a position that is more commonly reached by a different move order—same resulting position, different paths to reach the position. Transpositions can be a powerful tool to have in your opening arsenal to trick your opponent into positions that they may not know very well. When you can successfully hoodwink your opponent into territory that is unknown to them (but where you are aware of the opening ideas), then you have set yourself up for success! It is also good to be aware of the transpositional traps that your opponent is trying to set. Let's look at some of the most common transpositional traps to bamboozle your opponent!" (Chess.com)

7.2.1.2. MAJOR TRANSPOSITIONS:

7.2.1.2.1. QPO: FRENCH DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. d4 (QPO) e6 (QPO: Horwitz Defense) 2. e4 (French Defense) d5

7.2.1.2.2. RETI OPENING: QPO TRANSPOSITION: 1. f3 (Reti Opening) 1d5 2. d4 (QPO: Zukertort Variation)

7.2.1.2.3. SCANDINAVIAN DEFENSE: BLACKMAR-DIEMER GAMBIT TRANSPOSITION: 1. e4 (KPO) d5 (Scandinavian Defense) 2. d4 (QPO: Blackmar-Diemer Gambit)

7.2.1.2.4. QPO: PIRC DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. d4 (QPO) d6 2. e4 (Pirc Defense) f6

7.2.1.2.5. RETI OPENING: SICILIAN DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. f3 c5 (Reti Opening) 2. e4 (Sicilian Defense)

7.2.1.2.6. THE SICILIAN DEFENSE 'CHAMELEON' VARIATION: OPEN OR CLOSED SICILIAN TRANSPOSITION: 1. e4 c5 2. e2 (This flexible move could lead to an Open Sicilian or Closed Sicilian.) c6 3. bc3 (Still waiting to commit the d-pawn.) e6 4. d4 (Open Sicilian) OR 4. g3 (Closed Sicilian)

7.2.1.2.7. THE PANOV-BOTVINNIK ATTACK TRANSPOSITIONS: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK 1. e4 c6 (The Caro-Kann is the most popular move order to reach the Panov Attack.) 2. d4 d5 3. exd5 (We start off by exchanging the d5-pawn) cxd5 4. c4 (Next we play 4.c4, reaching the Panov Attack starting position.) ENGLISH OPENING: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK TRANSPOSITION 1. c4 c6 (Black could be attempting the Slav Defense) 2. e4 d5 3. exd5 cxd5 4. d4 QPO: BLACKMAR-GAMBIT: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK TRANSPOSITION 1. d4 d5 2. e4 (The Blackmar-Diemer Gambit is another system that can reach the Panov Attack.) c6 3. exd5 cxd5 4. c4

8. V. MASTER GAMES

9. LESSONS

9.1. I. BEGINNER (FUNDAMENTALS)

9.1.1. A. OPENING PRINCIPLES

9.1.2. B. WINNING THE GAME

9.1.3. C. CAPTURING THE PIECES

9.1.4. D. FINDING CHECKMATE

9.1.5. E. INTRO TO BOOK OPENINGS

9.1.5.1. 1. e4 Openings for Beginners (White)

9.1.5.2. 2. d4 Openings for Beginners (White)

9.1.5.3. 3. Intro to 1.e4 Defenses for Black (1...e5 and 1...c5)

9.1.5.4. 4. Intro to 1.e4 Defenses for Black (1...e6, 1...c6, and 1...d5)

9.1.5.5. 5. d4 Openings for Beginners (Black)

9.2. II. INTERMEDIATE (KEY CONCEPTS)

9.2.1. A. MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR PIECES

9.2.2. B. UNDERSTANDING ENDGAMES

9.2.3. C. WINNING WITH TACTICS

9.2.4. D. FORCING MOVES

9.2.5. E. READING THE BOARD

9.3. III. ADVANCED (TAKING CONTROL)

9.3.1. A. KEY OPENINGS

9.3.2. B. CHOOSING THE BEST MOVE

9.3.3. C. ACTIVATING YOUR PIECES

9.3.4. D. ADVANCED ENDGAMES

9.3.5. E. ATTACKING THE KING

9.3.6. F. ADVANCED TACTICS

9.3.7. G. ENDGAME PATTERNS

10. CHEATSHEET (LAWS)

10.1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

10.1.1. OPENING PRINCIPLES

10.1.1.1. THE DEFINITE ASSUMPTIONS OF OPENING THEORY:

10.1.1.1.1. “It is perhaps not generally realize that opening theory in chess proceeds on certain definite assumptions. They are simple enough and once learned they will never be forgotten. They are: 1. In the initial position White, because of the extra move, has a slight advantage. Consequently: 2. White’s problem in the opening is to secure the better position, while 3. Black’s problem is to secure equality.” (2)

10.1.1.2. THE THEORY OF OPENINGS:

10.1.1.2.1. “The elaboration of these questions in each individual case is what is mean by ‘the theory of openings.’” (2)

10.1.1.3. THE NORMAL & ABNORMAL PRINCIPLE:

10.1.1.3.1. NORMAL / ABNORMAL: “Throughout Practical Chess Openings and other similar treatises there is continual mention of ‘normal’ moves and ‘normal’ positions. This ‘normalcy’ arises in the following manner [2 etc 10 etc 4 etc]. . . . Any move which is in accordance with the basic principle is ‘normal’; any move which is not is ‘abnormal.’” (3)

10.1.1.3.2. NORMAL POSITION: “In almost all openings there is a well-defined series of normal moves which leads to what is usually called a ‘normal position.’ This normal position is the point of departure for further opening investigations.” (4)

10.1.1.4. THE GAMBIT & SACRIFICE PRINCIPLE:

10.1.1.4.1. SACRIFICES / GAMBITS: “Sacrifices and gambits sometimes seem to violate sound opening procedure. This is in a sense true, since every sacrifice requires special justification. However, it is a well-known and daily established fact that under certain circumstances extra material is useless when it is hampered by an immobile position In such cases sacrifices are likewise perfectly normal.” (3-4)

10.1.1.5. THE e5 BLACK EQUALIZATION RULE:

10.1.1.5.1. “[O]nce Black succeeds in playing [e5] . . . P—Q4 without any immediate harmful consequences he has equalized.” (9)

10.1.1.6. THE STRONG PAWN ATTACK PRINCIPLE:

10.1.1.6.1. “Likewise it is clear that when one has such a strong Pawn in the opening or early middle game, it is essential to use it for an attack” (7)

10.2. MAXIMS

10.2.1. OPENING MAXIMS

10.2.1.1. 3 DEFINITE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE OPENING:

10.2.1.1.1. “1. In the initial position White, because of the extra move, has a slight advantage. Consequently:

10.2.1.1.2. 2. White’s problem in the opening is to secure the better position, while

10.2.1.1.3. 3. Black’s problem is to secure equality.” (2)

10.2.1.2. 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THE OPENING:

10.2.1.2.1. 1. DEVELOPMENT: “Development is getting the pieces out.” (2)

10.2.1.2.2. 2. CENTER: “The center consists of the four squares in the geometrical center of the board.” (2)

10.2.1.3. 10 PRACTICAL RULES OF THE OPENING:

10.2.1.3.1. “1. Open with either the King’s Pawn or the Queen’s Pawn.

10.2.1.3.2. 2. Whenever possible, make a good developing move which threatens something.

10.2.1.3.3. 3. Develop Knights before Bishops.

10.2.1.3.4. 4. Pick the most suitable square for a piece and develop it there once and for all.

10.2.1.3.5. 5. Make one or two Pawn moves in the opening, not more.

10.2.1.3.6. 6. Do not bring your Queen out early.

10.2.1.3.7. 7. Castle as soon as possible, preferably on the King’s side.

10.2.1.3.8. 8. Play to get control of the center.

10.2.1.3.9. 9. Always try to maintain at least one Pawn in the center.

10.2.1.3.10. 10. Do not sacrifice without a clear and adequate reason.” (2-3)

10.2.1.4. 4 REASONS FOR PAWN SACRIFICES IN THE OPENING:

10.2.1.4.1. “a) Secure a tangible advantage in development;

10.2.1.4.2. b) Deflect the enemy Queen;

10.2.1.4.3. c) Prevent the enemy from castling;

10.2.1.4.4. d) Build up a strong attack.” (3)

10.2.1.5. 2 MOVEMENT QUESTIONS OF THE OPENING:

10.2.1.5.1. “1. How does it affect the center?

10.2.1.5.2. 2. How does it fit in with the development of my other pieces and Pawns?” (3)

10.2.1.6. 5 POSITIONAL QUESTIONS OF THE OPENING:

10.2.1.6.1. “1. Material;

10.2.1.6.2. 2. Pawn Structure;

10.2.1.6.3. 3. Mobility;

10.2.1.6.4. 4. King Safety;

10.2.1.6.5. 5. Combinations.” (5)

10.2.2. OTHER MAXIMS

10.2.2.1. 7 MAJOR PAWN STRUCTURES:

10.2.2.1.1. 1. Passed Pawn Structure

10.2.2.1.2. 2. Isolated Pawn Structure

10.2.2.1.3. 3. Connected Pawns Structure

10.2.2.1.4. 4. Backward Pawn Structure

10.2.2.1.5. 5. Doubled Pawns Structure

10.2.2.1.6. 6. Hanging Pawns Structure

10.2.2.1.7. 7. Pawn Majority Structure

10.2.2.2. 20 MAJOR PAWN SKELETONS:

10.2.2.2.1. PAWN SPECIES:

10.2.2.2.2. OPENING SPECIES:

10.3. KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

10.3.1. THE OPENING:

10.3.1.1. “The basic principle is that it is essential in the opening to develop all the pieces harmoniously and in such a way as to secure the most favorable position possible in the center.” (2)

10.3.2. DEVELOPMENT:

10.3.2.1. “Development is getting the pieces out.” (2)

10.3.3. CENTER:

10.3.3.1. “The center consists of the four squares in the geometrical center of the board.” (2)

10.3.4. STRATEGY:

10.3.4.1. Mid to long-term strategy to gain advantages. P = Strategy (Pawn Skeleton)

10.3.5. TACTICS:

10.3.5.1. Moves and combinations that provide tactical advantages and gains. D = Tactical Insights. (Development Moves)

10.3.6. NORMAL & ABNORMAL:

10.3.6.1. NORMAL / ABNORMAL: “Throughout Practical Chess Openings and other similar treatises there is continual mention of ‘normal’ moves and ‘normal’ positions. This ‘normalcy’ arises in the following manner [2 etc 10 etc 4 etc]. . . . Any move which is in accordance with the basic principle is ‘normal’; any move which is not is ‘abnormal.’” (3)

10.3.7. PAWN STRUCTURES:

10.3.7.1. PAWN STRUCTURES: As Philidor stated “pawns are the soul of chess”. In this article we will explore the most fundamental pawn structures and learn about its properties. Deep understanding of pawn structures is something that separates masters from amateurs. Go through each of the position one-by-one, and you will be able to identify them in your own games, and know which pawn structures are favorable and which aren’t

10.3.7.2. MAJOR PAWN STRUCTURES:

10.3.7.2.1. PASSED PAWN STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.2. ISOLATED PAWN STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.3. CONNECTED PAWNS STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.4. BACKWARD PAWN STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.5. DOUBLED PAWNS STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.6. HANGING PAWNS STRUCTURE:

10.3.7.2.7. PAWN MAJORITY STRUCTURE:

10.3.8. PAWN SKELETONS:

10.3.8.1. PAWN SKELETONS:

10.3.8.1.1. "In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. Since pawns are the least mobile of the chess pieces, the pawn structure is relatively static and thus largely determines the strategic nature of the position." (Wikipedia)

10.3.8.2. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF PAWN SKELETONS:

10.3.8.2.1. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF PAWN STRUCTURE: "Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated, doubled, or backward pawns and holes, once created, are usually permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid them (but there are exceptions—for instance see Boleslavsky hole below). In the absence of these structural weaknesses, it is not possible to assess a pawn formation as good or bad—much depends on the position of the pieces. The pawn formation does determine the overall strategies of the players to a large extent, however, even if arising from unrelated openings. Pawn formations symmetrical about a vertical line (such as the e5 Chain and the d5 Chain) may appear similar, but they tend to have entirely different characteristics because of the propensity of the kings to castle on the kingside. Pawn structures often transpose into one another, such as the Isolani into the Hanging pawns, and vice versa. Such transpositions must be considered carefully and often mark shifts in game strategy." (Wikipedia)

10.3.8.3. THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF THE OPENING:

10.3.8.3.1. “The basic principle is that it is essential in the opening to develop all the pieces harmoniously and in such a way as to secure the most favorable position possible in the center.” (2)

10.3.8.4. TENSION IN PAWN SKELETONS:

10.3.8.4.1. "Structures with mutually attacking pawns are said to have tension. They are ordinarily unstable and tend to transpose into a stable formation with a pawn push or exchange. Play often revolves around making the transposition happen under favorable circumstances. For instance, in the Queen's Gambit Declined, Black waits until White develops the king's bishop to make the d5xc4 capture, transposing to the Slav formation (see below)." (Wikipedia)

10.3.8.5. MAJOR PAWN SKELETONS (BY NAME):

10.3.8.5.1. CARO STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.2. SLAV STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.3. SICILIAN STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.4. MARÓCZY BIND STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.5. HEDGEHOG STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.6. RAUZER STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.7. BOLESLAVSKY WALL STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.8. d5 CHAIN STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.9. e5 CHAIN STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.10. MODERN BENONI STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.11. GIUOCO PIANO: ISOLANI STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.12. QUEEN'S GAMBIT: ISOLANI STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.13. HANGING PAWNS STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.14. CARLSBAD STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.15. PANOV STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.16. STONEWALL STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.17. BOTVINNIK SYSTEM STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.5.18. CLOSED SICILIAN STRUCTURE:

10.3.8.6. MAJOR PAWN SKELETONS (BY FAMILY):

10.3.8.6.1. PAWN SPECIES

10.3.8.6.2. OPENING SPECIES

10.3.9. TRANSPOSITIONS:

10.3.9.1. TRANSPOSITION:

10.3.9.1.1. "In chess, an opening transposition occurs when a sequence of moves leads to a position that is more commonly reached by a different move order—same resulting position, different paths to reach the position. Transpositions can be a powerful tool to have in your opening arsenal to trick your opponent into positions that they may not know very well. When you can successfully hoodwink your opponent into territory that is unknown to them (but where you are aware of the opening ideas), then you have set yourself up for success! It is also good to be aware of the transpositional traps that your opponent is trying to set. Let's look at some of the most common transpositional traps to bamboozle your opponent!" (Chess.com)

10.3.9.2. MAJOR TRANSPOSITIONS:

10.3.9.2.1. QPO: FRENCH DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. d4 (QPO) e6 (QPO: Horwitz Defense) 2. e4 (French Defense) d5

10.3.9.2.2. RETI OPENING: QPO TRANSPOSITION: 1. f3 (Reti Opening) 1d5 2. d4 (QPO: Zukertort Variation)

10.3.9.2.3. SCANDINAVIAN DEFENSE: BLACKMAR-DIEMER GAMBIT TRANSPOSITION: 1. e4 (KPO) d5 (Scandinavian Defense) 2. d4 (QPO: Blackmar-Diemer Gambit)

10.3.9.2.4. QPO: PIRC DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. d4 (QPO) d6 2. e4 (Pirc Defense) f6

10.3.9.2.5. RETI OPENING: SICILIAN DEFENSE TRANSPOSITION: 1. f3 c5 (Reti Opening) 2. e4 (Sicilian Defense)

10.3.9.2.6. THE SICILIAN DEFENSE 'CHAMELEON' VARIATION: OPEN OR CLOSED SICILIAN TRANSPOSITION: 1. e4 c5 2. e2 (This flexible move could lead to an Open Sicilian or Closed Sicilian.) c6 3. bc3 (Still waiting to commit the d-pawn.) e6 4. d4 (Open Sicilian) OR 4. g3 (Closed Sicilian)

10.3.9.2.7. THE PANOV-BOTVINNIK ATTACK TRANSPOSITIONS: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK 1. e4 c6 (The Caro-Kann is the most popular move order to reach the Panov Attack.) 2. d4 d5 3. exd5 (We start off by exchanging the d5-pawn) cxd5 4. c4 (Next we play 4.c4, reaching the Panov Attack starting position.) ENGLISH OPENING: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK TRANSPOSITION 1. c4 c6 (Black could be attempting the Slav Defense) 2. e4 d5 3. exd5 cxd5 4. d4 QPO: BLACKMAR-GAMBIT: CARO-KANN DEFENSE: PANOV ATTACK TRANSPOSITION 1. d4 d5 2. e4 (The Blackmar-Diemer Gambit is another system that can reach the Panov Attack.) c6 3. exd5 cxd5 4. c4