Physical Microbial Control Methods

Concept Map for Physical Microbial Control Methods

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Physical Microbial Control Methods by Mind Map: Physical Microbial Control Methods

1. Heating

1.1. Methods

1.1.1. Boiling denatures proteins and alters membranes Uses cooking personal use preparing certain laboratory media

1.1.2. Dry-heat oven denatures proteins and alters membranes, dehydration, desiccation Use sterilization of heat-stable medical and laboratory equipment and glassware

1.1.3. Incineration destroy by burning Uses flaming loop microincinerator

1.1.4. Autoclave denatures proteins and alters membranes Use sterilization of microbiological media, head-stable medical and laboratory equipment, and other heat-stable items

1.1.5. Pasteurization denatures proteins and alters membranes Use prevents spoilage of milk, apple juice, honey, and other ingestible liquids

2. Cold

2.1. Methods

2.1.1. Refrigeration inhibits metabolism (slows or arrests cell division) Use preservation of food or laboratory materials (solutions, cultures)

2.1.2. Freezing stops metabolism, may kill microbes Use Long-term storage of food, laboratory cultures, or medical specimens

3. Pressure

3.1. Methods

3.1.1. High-pressure processing (pascalization) denatures proteins and can cause cell lysis Use preservation of food

3.1.2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits metabolism and growth of anaerobic microbes Use treatment of certain infections (e.g. gas gangrene)

4. Desiccation (dehydration)

4.1. Methods

4.1.1. Simple desiccation inhibits metabolism Uses dried fruits jerky

4.1.2. Reduce water activity inhibits metabolism and can cause lysis Uses salted meats and fish honey jams and jellies

4.1.3. Lyophilization inhibits metabolism Use preservation of food, laboratory cultures, or reagents

5. Radiation

5.1. Methods

5.1.1. Ionizing radiation alters molecular structures, introduces double-strand breaks into DNA Uses sterilization of spices and heat-sensitive laboratory and medical items used for food sterilization in Europe but not widely accepted in US

5.1.2. Nonionizing radiation introduces thymine dimers, leading to mutations Uses disinfection of surfaces in laboratories and rooms in health-care environment disinfection of water and air

6. Filtration

6.1. Methods

6.1.1. Membrane filtration physically removes microbes from liquid solutions Use removal of bacteria from heat-sensitive solutions like vitamins, antibiotics, and media with heat-sensitive components

6.1.2. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration physically removes microbes from air Uses laboratory biological safety cabinets operating rooms isolation units heating and air conditioning systems vacuum cleaners

7. Sonication

7.1. cavitation (formation of empty space) disrupts cells, lysing them

7.2. Uses

7.2.1. laboratory research to lyse cells

7.2.2. cleaning jewelry, lenses, and equipment