Physical Microbial Control Methods

Concept Map for Physical Microbial Control Methods

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Physical Microbial Control Methods by Mind Map: Physical Microbial Control Methods

1. Heating

1.1. Methods

1.1.1. Boiling

1.1.1.1. denatures proteins and alters membranes

1.1.1.2. Uses

1.1.1.2.1. cooking

1.1.1.2.2. personal use

1.1.1.2.3. preparing certain laboratory media

1.1.2. Dry-heat oven

1.1.2.1. denatures proteins and alters membranes, dehydration, desiccation

1.1.2.2. Use

1.1.2.2.1. sterilization of heat-stable medical and laboratory equipment and glassware

1.1.3. Incineration

1.1.3.1. destroy by burning

1.1.3.2. Uses

1.1.3.2.1. flaming loop

1.1.3.2.2. microincinerator

1.1.4. Autoclave

1.1.4.1. denatures proteins and alters membranes

1.1.4.2. Use

1.1.4.2.1. sterilization of microbiological media, head-stable medical and laboratory equipment, and other heat-stable items

1.1.5. Pasteurization

1.1.5.1. denatures proteins and alters membranes

1.1.5.2. Use

1.1.5.2.1. prevents spoilage of milk, apple juice, honey, and other ingestible liquids

2. Cold

2.1. Methods

2.1.1. Refrigeration

2.1.1.1. inhibits metabolism (slows or arrests cell division)

2.1.1.2. Use

2.1.1.2.1. preservation of food or laboratory materials (solutions, cultures)

2.1.2. Freezing

2.1.2.1. stops metabolism, may kill microbes

2.1.2.2. Use

2.1.2.2.1. Long-term storage of food, laboratory cultures, or medical specimens

3. Pressure

3.1. Methods

3.1.1. High-pressure processing (pascalization)

3.1.1.1. denatures proteins and can cause cell lysis

3.1.1.2. Use

3.1.1.2.1. preservation of food

3.1.2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

3.1.2.1. inhibits metabolism and growth of anaerobic microbes

3.1.2.2. Use

3.1.2.2.1. treatment of certain infections (e.g. gas gangrene)

4. Desiccation (dehydration)

4.1. Methods

4.1.1. Simple desiccation

4.1.1.1. inhibits metabolism

4.1.1.2. Uses

4.1.1.2.1. dried fruits

4.1.1.2.2. jerky

4.1.2. Reduce water activity

4.1.2.1. inhibits metabolism and can cause lysis

4.1.2.2. Uses

4.1.2.2.1. salted meats and fish

4.1.2.2.2. honey

4.1.2.2.3. jams and jellies

4.1.3. Lyophilization

4.1.3.1. inhibits metabolism

4.1.3.2. Use

4.1.3.2.1. preservation of food, laboratory cultures, or reagents

5. Radiation

5.1. Methods

5.1.1. Ionizing radiation

5.1.1.1. alters molecular structures, introduces double-strand breaks into DNA

5.1.1.2. Uses

5.1.1.2.1. sterilization of spices and heat-sensitive laboratory and medical items

5.1.1.2.2. used for food sterilization in Europe but not widely accepted in US

5.1.2. Nonionizing radiation

5.1.2.1. introduces thymine dimers, leading to mutations

5.1.2.2. Uses

5.1.2.2.1. disinfection of surfaces in laboratories and rooms in health-care environment

5.1.2.2.2. disinfection of water and air

6. Filtration

6.1. Methods

6.1.1. Membrane filtration

6.1.1.1. physically removes microbes from liquid solutions

6.1.1.2. Use

6.1.1.2.1. removal of bacteria from heat-sensitive solutions like vitamins, antibiotics, and media with heat-sensitive components

6.1.2. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration

6.1.2.1. physically removes microbes from air

6.1.2.2. Uses

6.1.2.2.1. laboratory biological safety cabinets

6.1.2.2.2. operating rooms

6.1.2.2.3. isolation units

6.1.2.2.4. heating and air conditioning systems

6.1.2.2.5. vacuum cleaners

7. Sonication

7.1. cavitation (formation of empty space) disrupts cells, lysing them

7.2. Uses

7.2.1. laboratory research to lyse cells

7.2.2. cleaning jewelry, lenses, and equipment