Cell Mindmap By Yessenia

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Cell Mindmap By Yessenia by Mind Map: Cell Mindmap By Yessenia

1. Cell Theory

1.1. All organelles are made of cells

1.2. Cells are the smallest living basic unit of life

1.3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells only

2. Cell Common Characteristics

2.1. All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane

2.2. All cells pass on DNA

2.3. All cells contain ribosomes that synthesize proteins

2.4. All cells contain cytosol, a semi-flui substance in membrane

3. Types of Cells: Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic

3.1. Prokaryotic Cells

3.1.1. - DNA (in single circular chromosome) in nucleoid

3.1.2. - No membrane

3.1.3. - Simpler structure

3.1.4. - May have extra small circular DNA (plasmid)

3.1.5. - May have cell wall made of peptidoglycans

3.2. Eukaryotic Cells

3.2.1. - Much bigger/larger size

3.2.2. - Diverse shapes

3.2.3. - Chromosomes contained in nucleus

3.2.4. - Nucleus enclosed by nuclear envelope (membrane)

3.2.5. - Contain membrane-enclosed organelles

4. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

4.1. Nucleus

4.1.1. Contains most genes

4.1.2. DNA

4.2. Nuclear Envelope

4.2.1. 2 lipid bilayers

4.3. Nucleolus

4.3.1. Contains DNA, RNA, proteins & subunits

4.3.2. Function: rRNA synthesis & assembly of rRNA with proteins to form ribosomal subunits

4.4. Ribosomes

4.4.1. Made of rRNA & protein

4.4.2. Each ribosome has a small & large subunit that completes protein synthesis in cytoplasm or internal membranes

4.4.3. Synthesizes proteins

4.4.4. Free ribosomes: in cytosol

4.4.5. Bound ribosomes: attached to the ER

4.5. 2 Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.5.1. Smooth ER Tube-like portion/shape Lacks ribosomes Synthesizes lipids Metabolizes carbs Detoxifies poison Stores calcium

4.5.2. Rough ER cisternae (sac-like) portion/shape Ribosomes attached to outside Bound ribosomes secrete glycoproteins Distribute transport vesicles Membrane factory

4.6. Golgi Apparatus

4.6.1. Shipping & Receiving Center Function: packages & distributes synthesized molecules Cis & trans faces

4.7. Lysosomes

4.7.1. Membrane-bound sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes (catalyze hydrolysis reacations)

4.7.2. Lysosome enzymes hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides & nucleic acids

4.7.3. Lysosome enzymes have a pH 5

4.7.4. Lysosomes have compartmentalization

4.7.5. Arise from Golgi Apparatus

4.7.6. Synthesized by RER & transported by the Golgi Apparatus, vesicles pinch Golgi then remain in cytoplasms until they fuse into mature lysosomes

4.7.7. Function: Digestion of food by phagocytosis & autophagy (fusing with worn out or damaged cells, aka recycling)

4.8. Mitochondria

4.8.1. Enery Transformer Site of cellular respiration: catabolism of sugar, fats, etc to make ATP Double membrane (smooth outer membrane & inner cristae membrane) Made of intermembrane space (proteins carried out cellular respiration) & matrix (circular DNA & ribosomes)

4.9. Chloroplasts

4.9.1. Energy Transformers Photosynthetic site (anabolic pathways) Found in leaves/plants & eukaryotic algae Cytoplasmic streaming Surrounded by outer & inner membrane Inner membrane, stroma, thylakoid space, DNA & ribosomes Thylakoid space: generates H+ concentration gradients Stroma: contains DNA, ribosomes, & other enzymes involved in photosynthesis