the restoration of the monarchy

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the restoration of the monarchy by Mind Map: the restoration of the monarchy

1. the monarchy was restored in 1660

1.1. Charles II came back to England and established a court devoted to pleasure.

1.1.1. in 1662 Charles patronised the Royal Society (=an association of scientists and intellectuals)

2. the motto of the society "nullius in verva" ( on the word of no one) was a direct challenge to the dependence of the old philosophy on authorities.

3. its members were the physicist and chemist Robert Boyle, the diarists John Evelyn and Samuel Pepys, the architect Sir Christopher Wren.

4. landowners, gentry and nobles resumed their leadership of society and the newly elected parliament

5. Cavalier Parliament, met in 1661

6. -ordered the bodies of regicides(including Cromwell) to be exhumed and hanged -Corporation Act (1661) which excluded the dissenters from public office -Act of Uniformity (1662) which imposedthe use of Book of Common Prayer -Test act (1673) which required all public employees to conform to the church of England

7. The great Plague and the great Fire

8. in 1665 there was a devasting outbreak of bubonic plague

9. in 1666 the Great Fire of London raged for 5 days, destroying nine-tenths of the buildings within the City's medieval walls.

10. Charles II asked the architect Sir Christopher Wren to rebuild the old insanitary City.

11. Wren presented a plan for the new City (St Paul's Cathedral was his masterpiece) -> project financed by the king with the aid of France

12. In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II

13. James II converted to Catholicism

14. he began to place Catholics in positions of authority in the army and universities

15. the two opposing parties in the Parliament, the Wighs and the Tories, were alarmed because another civil war could break out

16. they began to negotiate with William Of Orange, Mary's (James protestant daughter) husband because she was next in succession to the throne.

17. in 1688 -> William of Orange marched across southern England in 1689 -> Wiliam and Mary became joint monarchs at the request of parliament

18. a revolution had taken place as the monarch had been chosen by Parliament and not by "divine right"

19. this revolution was known as the "BLOODLESS" OR "GLORIOUS REVOLUTION" -> because it had secceeded without fighting

20. WILLIAM AND MARY'S REIGN (1689 - 1702)

21. -Toleration Act 1689 -> introduced more religious tolerance by granting freedom of worship to dissenting Protestants but excluded Catholics and Unitarians. -Bill of Rights (1689) -> re-enacted freedoms that had been started by Magna Carta and the Petition of Right. It established that the king could levy taxes, raise an army and suspend laws only with the Parliament's consent

22. Anne became queen of England in 1702 (English and Anglican)

23. in 1707 was passed the Act of Union ->by which th Kingdom of England and Scotland was replaced by The United Kingdom of Great Britain with a singular Parliament in Westminster

24. Ireland remained a separate kingdom with its own Parliament, thought subordinate to Westminster, with a Protestant government at Dublin Castle

25. IN FOREIGN POLICY : the Treaty of Utrecht was signed with France in 1713 at the end of the war of Spanish succession

26. Queen Anne died in 1714

27. it gave England the French possessions in Canada and the monopoly of the slave trade with Spanish America => the British Empire was emerging

28. acts were passed which set the course of parliamentary rule in Britain and paved the way to costitutional monarchy.

29. Trade flourished