Chapter 7- Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance ca. 1300-1600

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Chapter 7- Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance ca. 1300-1600 by Mind Map: Chapter 7- Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance ca. 1300-1600

1. Transition: Medieval to Renaissance

1.1. The Black Death

1.1.1. The bubonic plague was a global pandemic originating in China that worked its way through Europe, by flea carrying black rats, and spread rapidly due to towns crowded and unsanitary conditions.

1.2. The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy

1.2.1. By the end of the century the English laid the groundwork for a constitutional monarchy that would bridge the gap between medieval duedalism and modern democracy.

1.3. The Hundred Years War

1.3.1. The English and French went to war for over 100 years, mainly on French land. The English eventually surrendered to the French who was lead by Joan of Arch.

1.4. The Decline of the Church

1.4.1. Simony: when Avignon popes sell Church offices just

1.4.2. Indulgences: pardons from temporal penalties for sins committed by lay Christians

1.4.3. The church essentially “battled” for influence or authority over the land against the state.

2. The Arts in Transition

2.1. Boccaccio

2.1.1. Giovanni Boccaccio is a famous writer most known for his work Decameron (1351) which was a story taking place during the plague.

2.2. Christine de Pisan

2.2.1. Feminism: belief that women are equal to men

2.2.2. Christine de Pisan was the world’s first feminist writer and advocated for women’s educational rights, one of her works is called Book of the City of Ladies (1405) and fought against misogyny.

2.3. Chaucer

2.3.1. Chaucer was a writer who had a major influence of English literature. He wrote in Middle English and tales of beast fables to moral takes and even risqué and bawdy tales.

2.4. Giotto’ a New Realism

2.4.1. Chiaroscuro: an art technique

2.4.2. Giotto was a great painter who introduced a more realistic style and influenced Italian art.

2.5. The Ars Nova in Music

2.5.1. Ars Nova: new art

2.5.2. Isorhythm: same rhythm

2.5.3. Ars Nova was a landmark in music due to it’s increasing complexity and expressiveness.

3. The Italian Renaissance

3.1. The Medici

3.1.1. Condottieri: professional soldiers

3.1.2. Medici was a powerful banking family who ruled cities in the Italian Renaissance. They supported scholarship and patronized the arts.

4. Renaissance Humanism

4.1. Petrarch:”Father of Humanism”

4.1.1. Sonnet: 14 line lyric poem

4.1.2. Petrarch was the most influential humanist. He collected manuscripts and amounted a personal library of about 200 works. He was mentally torn between religion and classical reasoning. He wrote poems about his struggle with the flesh and the spirit.

4.2. Ficino: The Platonic Academy

4.2.1. Ficino was a humanist that would translate Greek manuscripts into Latin, making them available to western humanists. Ficino also introduced the idea of platonic love.

4.3. Pico della Mirandola: The Dignity of Man

4.3.1. Pico Della Mirandola sought to discover the unity of truth in all philosophical thought, and also focused on individualism.

4.4. Castiglione: The Well-Rounded Person

4.4.1. Castiglione wrote about Socratic discussions he had with peers debating and philosophizing what the ideal man and woman were

4.5. Female Humanists

4.5.1. Female humanists usually had to choose between marriage, the convent or education. However the few female humanists took a feminist approach to their work.

4.6. The Printing Press

4.6.1. Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press so that books could be widely distributed. This was a landmark in education and communication.

4.7. Machiavelli and Power Politics

4.7.1. The work The Prince was an examination of political expediency and an expose on real life topics. The Machiavellian, the master of power politics, can ensure the survival of the state.

5. Early Renaissance Art

5.1. Early Renaissance Architecture

5.1.1. The architecture mirrored universal order.

5.2. Brunelleschi

5.2.1. Drum: the section immediately beneath the dome

5.2.2. Lantern: makes light enter the interior

5.2.3. Pilasters: shallow, flattened, rectangular columns that adhere to the wall surface

5.2.4. Brunelleschi was an award winning architect. He created a dome, the biggest of it’s kind since the Parthenon in Rome. He defended classical proportions and symmetry.

5.3. Alberti

5.3.1. Alberti shared Brunelleschi’s work and argued that architecture should stem from squares and circles, the most perfect geometric shapes.

5.4. Early Renaissance Painting

5.4.1. Picture plane: two dimensional surface of the panel or canvas

5.4.2. Linear or one point perspective: a theoretical model that translates 3D into 2D

5.4.3. Linear perspective satisfies the need for an accurate representation of the physical world and imposed a relationship of a fixed time and space

5.5. Masaccio

5.5.1. Aerial Perspective: the subtle blurring of details

5.5.2. Masaccio was the first artist to master Brunelleschi’s new spatial device. He painted The Tribute Money

5.6. Botticelli

5.6.1. Botticelli is famous for his painting The Birth of Venus, and was intrigued by the classical nude. He also used minimal shading.

5.7. Early Renaissance Sculpture

5.7.1. Early renaissance art reinterpreted grew-Roman themes and principles.

5.8. Donatello

5.8.1. Donatello was a famous sculpture who worked in marble and bronze.

5.9. Ghiberti

5.9.1. Ghiberti was a goldsmith and a sculptor

5.10. Verrocchio

5.10.1. Verrocchio was a sculptor who taught famous artists like Leonardo Da Vinci. He specialized in 3D realistic sculpture and often sculpted soldiers.

6. High Renaissance Art

6.1. High Renaissance Architecture

6.1.1. Rome went through a campaign to restore the city to Christendom.

6.2. Leonardo da Vinci

6.2.1. Da Vinci exercised the curiosity, talent, and inventiveness that typified the age of rebirth, he was considered an artistic genius.

6.3. Raphael

6.3.1. Raphael was a master painter who focused on accuracy and incisiveness, he made famous works like The School of Athens.

6.4. Michelangelo

6.4.1. Michelangelo was an architect, painter, poet and engineer. In his sculptures he violated classical rules by making the head and hands of his sculptures too big for the body.

6.5. The High Renaissance in Venice

6.5.1. Florence was a painter who focused on color and primarily online with the fundamentals of design.

7. Renaissance Music

7.1. Josquin des Prez

7.1.1. Word Painting: manipulation of music to convey the text

7.1.2. Imitation: repetition of voice in 2nd 3rd and 4th voices

7.1.3. Flemish composer Joaquin des Prez served at the courts of France and Italy known as the prince of music. He contrived complex designs in which melody and harmony were distributed symmetrically and with geometric clarity.

7.2. The Madrigal

7.2.1. Madrigal: a composition for 3-6 unaccompanied voices

7.2.2. The madrigal was a musical composition of 3-6 unaccompanied voices, that of which took turns with individual parts. They functioned more as popular entertainment rather than as concert performances.

7.3. Instrumental Music

7.3.1. Clavichord & the harpsichord: keyboard instruments

7.3.2. Music for solo instruments were popular, like the lute, and instrumentals started to take the place of voicing parts.

7.4. Renaissance Dance

7.4.1. The renaissance started the first efforts of independent dance and helped the development of dance as a form of theatrical entertainment.