Introduction to organic chemistry

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Introduction to organic chemistry by Mind Map: Introduction to organic chemistry

1. functional groups

1.1. determines the characteristic chemical properties of compounds

1.1.1. general formula

1.1.2. important functional groups - alcohols, halogenoalkanes, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines and nitriles

2. representing organic molecules

2.1. empirical formula - simplest ratio of the different types of atoms present

2.2. molecular formula - actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule

2.3. structural formula - atoms bonded to each carbon atom in the molecule

2.4. displayed formula - all the bonds within a molecule

2.5. skeletal formula - simplified version of the displayed formula

3. naming organic compounds

3.1. alkenes provide basis of the naming system

3.1.1. stem of each name indicates the number of carbon atoms in the longest chain in one molecule of a compound

3.1.2. position of side-chains is indicated by numbering the carbon atoms in the longest chain

4. bonding in organic molecules

4.1. explains the shapes of organic molecules

4.1.1. sigma (σ) bonds - single covalent bonds formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals

4.1.2. pi (π) bonds - covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom laterally.

5. structural isomerism

5.1. structural isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formula

5.1.1. position isomerism - position of the functional group varies

5.1.2. functional isomerism - different functional groups present

5.1.3. chain isomerism - differ in the structure of their carbon 'skeleton'

6. stereoisomerism

6.1. compounds whose molecules have the same atoms bonded to each other but with different arrangements of the atoms in space

6.1.1. cis-trans isomerism - arise because of he restricted rotation around a C=C double bond

6.1.2. optical isomerism - contain a chiral center resulting in mirror images of the molecule that cannot be superimposed

7. organic reactions - mechanisms

7.1. homolytic fission - both atoms at each end of the bond leave with one electron from the pair that formed the covalent bond

7.1.1. free radicals

7.2. heterolytic fission - the more electronegative atom takes both the electrons in the covalent bond

7.2.1. electrophile - acceptor of a pair of electrons

7.2.2. nucleophile - is a donator of a pair of electrons

8. types of organic reaction

8.1. addition reactions - formation of a single product from two reactant molecules

8.2. elimination - results in the removal of a small molecule from a larger one

8.3. substitution - involve the replacement of one atom or a group of atoms by another

8.4. oxidation - the loss of electrons from a species/the addition of oxygen atoms to a molecule and/or the removal of hydrogen atoms from a molecule

8.4.1. reduction - chemical opposite of oxidation