Walter and White, Chapter 1

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Walter and White, Chapter 1 by Mind Map: Walter and White, Chapter 1

1. History of CALL

1.1. Warschauer and Kern, 2000

1.1.1. 1. "Structural CALL": It was based on a view of language as a formal system of structures (grammar, phonology, etc). Focused on drill and practice metjods to achieve accuracy.

1.1.2. 2. "Communicative CALL": Knowledge about language is constructed in the learner’s mind and with a dominant methodology of CLT (communicative language teaching)

1.1.3. 3. "Integrative CALL": "Multimedia and the internet"

1.2. Bax, 2003

1.2.1. 1. "Restricted CALL": The types of questions, tasks, responses and feedback tended to be closed. This type of approach is largely a historical artefact that is now rarely used.

1.2.2. 2. "Open CALL": Includes open-ended interactions with both computers and, ocassionally, with other users. Suggests that this phase had little to do with real communication (CLT)

1.2.3. 3. "Integrated CALL": Will be achieved when the technology is fully normalized.

2. Roles of technology in learning

2.1. Tutor: The computer teacher the learner. The knowledge resided in the machine, grom where it is delivered to the learner in small chunks with frequent reinforcement. Examples: adaptative tutoring system or drill-and-practice applications

2.2. Tutee: The learner teacher the computer. The learner constructs knowledge often through tril and error, by teaching the computer. (Based on constructivist paradigm by Piaget)

2.3. Tool: Applies to any context in which technology is the means by which a task is achieved. Examples: using a word-processing program to write an essat or editing-software to create a video.

3. Communicative and digital competence

3.1. Linguistic competence: Knowing how touse technology. The ability to manipulate both hardware and software.

3.2. Sociolinguistic competence: Understand how language is used in context.

3.3. Discourse competence:: Ability to create and use larger pieces of language to create texts or conduct conversations.

3.4. Strategic competence: Ability to manage and navigate communication to repair communicatino breakdowns, and work around unfamiliar areas of language.

4. From CALL to TELL

4.1. One of the main differences between CALL and TELL is that we see technology not as assisting language learning, but as part of the environment in which language exists and is used.