Breast neoplasms

Breast neoplasms

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Breast neoplasms by Mind Map: Breast neoplasms

1. Submammary intrarigo: Infection of the inframammary sulcus by the fungus Candida albicans. It is more common in elderly and obese patients with large breast volume, where it is difficult to keep the area dry due to the sweat accumulated in the area.

1.1. Mastitis It is the infection and inflammation of the mammary gland, sometimes associated with breastfeeding. The gland becomes inflamed, causing pain, swelling, redness, and increased skin temperature.

2. Mondor's disease: It is a thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins of the breast, although it can spread to the armpit or the chest wall. It can be secondary to surgical interventions or trauma.

3. What is the type of population affected?

3.1. In North American, European and Australian populations, 6% of women develop invasive breast cancer before age 75

3.2. In the population of Africa and Asia, 2% of women develop breast cancer

4. What is breast neoplasms?

4.1. Breast neoplasms consist of a wide spectrum of pathologies from benign proliferations, high-risk lesions, precursor lesions, to invasive malignancies.

4.2. Breast cancer is the most common nonskin malignancy in women.

5. Types of risk factors

5.1. Reproductive Lifestyle Factors That Increase Unopposed Estrogen Load

5.2. Early menarche

5.3. Infertility

5.4. Few older children at first birth

5.5. Lack of breastfeeding

5.6. Late menopause

5.7. Unopposed Estrogen Therapy

5.8. Personal History of Breast Cancer or High Risk Breast Lesion

5.9. First-degree relative with breast cancer

5.10. Genetic mutations

6. What is the classification?

6.1. The main pathological classification of breast neoplasms is published by the World Health Organization: WHO Classification of Breast Tumors.

6.2. The vast majority of breast cancers are adenocarcinomas (99%). The most common types are:

6.2.1. Invasive carcinoma of any special type (ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified): 40-75%

6.2.2. Increasing in age

6.2.3. Ductal carcinoma in situ: 20-25%

6.2.4. Invasive lobular carcinoma: 5-15%

7. Benign and malignant breast diseases

8. Pain (Mastodynia): It is when pain appears in the breast. It is a frequent reason for consultation and only 1% of mastodynias are caused by malignant pathology.

8.1. Cyclic mastopathy: It is related to menstrual cycles and can be considered physiological.

8.2. Puerperal mastitis: It is the infection of the mammary gland during breastfeeding.

9. Tumor: Palpating a lump in the breast is always a warning sign since breast cancer is the most common malignant mass in women.

9.1. Fibroadenoma: It is the most common benign tumor and the main cause of primary tumor in women under 25 years of age. It can grow with pregnancy, breastfeeding or taking contraceptives

9.2. Phylloides or phylloides tumor: It is a rare tumor, larger than fibroadenoma and can become malignant.

9.3. Galactocele: it is a milk retention produced by the obstruction of a milk-protein in the course of breastfeeding. The puncture and extraction of milk fluid clarifies the diagnosis, not requiring any intervention.

9.3.1. Fat necrosis of the breast: It occurs as a result of trauma or surgical interventions such as breast reduction. Its consistency is mistaken for a malignant tumor, so it must be biopsied.

10. Nipple discharge: Depending on the fluid secreted we can differentiate galactorrhea (similar to milk), telorrhea (yellowish or dark discharge) and telorrhea (blood).

10.1. Single intraductal papilloma: The most common cause of unipolar telorrhagia. It is advisable to perform an ultrasound and biopsy, and its excision is recommended, since up to 15% can be malignant.

10.2. Ductal ectasia: This is the dilation of the breast ducts. One of its main symptoms is unilateral and uniorificial breast discharge, although it can sometimes be pluriorificial. It can cause fibrosis and retraction of the nipple, requiring a differential diagnosis with breast cancer

11. CAP alterations: Among the benign pathology of the breast that can alter the areola-nipple complex, we can differentiate the following entities:

11.1. Recurrent periareolar fistulization: Inflammatory and infectious process of the terminal ducts, more frequent in young smokers. It is believed to be caused by subareolar necrosis induced by tobacco toxins.

11.2. Erosive adenomatosis of the nipple: Variant of intraductal papilloma that appears in CAP. A wide surgical excision is recommended, which implies a significant aesthetic alteration of the breast, so reconstructive techniques will have to be considered at the time of excision.

12. Skin disorders: It must be taken into account that any dermatological alteration can have its expression in the breast. Although they should be treated and reviewed by a dermatologist, their appearance in the breast should be evaluated by a gynecologist to rule out malignant pathology.