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ABSTRACT by Mind Map: ABSTRACT

1. Background

1.1. 21 century

1.1.1. Creative

1.1.1.1. traditionally considered to be most directly involved with artistic endeavors such as art and music.

1.1.1.2. Recently creativity has been shown to be integral to a wide range of skills, including scientific thinking, entrepreneurship, design thinking, and mathematics.

1.1.2. Creative Thinking

1.1.2.1. Intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication, as a guide to belief and action

1.1.3. Communication

1.1.3.1. Communication includes the ability to express thoughts clearly and persuasively both orally and in writing, articulate opinions, communicate coherent instructions and motivate others through speech. Communication skills are also embedded in information, media, and ICT competencies. It is stated that communication skills are highly valued in the workplace and public life, and are also shaped by current and emerging technologies, taking into account the large proportion of messages that are mediated by one or more digital devices. In this context, effective communication skills can help to avoid misunderstandings and miscommunications.

1.1.3.1.1. Joynes, C., S. Rossignoli, and E. Fenyiwa Amonoo-Kuofi. "21st Century Skills: Evidence of issues in definition, demand and delivery for development contexts (K4D Helpdesk Report)." Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies (2019).

1.1.3.2. Oral, written, nonverbal and listening skills. Communication skills are recognised as a gateway to developing other soft skills.

1.1.3.2.1. Joynes, C., S. Rossignoli, and E. Fenyiwa Amonoo-Kuofi. "21st Century Skills: Evidence of issues in definition, demand and delivery for development contexts (K4D Helpdesk Report)." Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies (2019).

1.1.3.3. Considering the fact that 21st century communication also takes place across cultures, the expected communicators in this communication context are also expected to be inter-culturally competent.

1.1.3.3.1. Pattiwael, Athriyana Santye. "Addressing 21st Century Communication Skills: Some Emerging Issues from Eil Pedagogy & Intercultural Communicative Competence." IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education) 3.2 (2016): 158-170.

1.1.3.4. Communication becomes both more difficult and more necessary since diversity and change are unavoidable. The diverse setting of communication will require more competent, strategic and articulate interactants. Common conception of how communication take places is no longer adequate and to some extent might be misleading.

1.1.3.4.1. Pattiwael, Athriyana Santye. "Addressing 21st Century Communication Skills: Some Emerging Issues from Eil Pedagogy & Intercultural Communicative Competence." IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education) 3.2 (2016): 158-170.

1.1.3.5. 21st century communication practices at the present time shape the direction and the needs in teaching and learning English. The fact that the majority of 21st communication activities are highly intercultural in its nature present a strong call to embrace intercultural communicative competence in ELT classrooms‟ efforts to address 21st communication skills.

1.1.3.5.1. Pattiwael, Athriyana Santye. "Addressing 21st Century Communication Skills: Some Emerging Issues from Eil Pedagogy & Intercultural Communicative Competence." IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education) 3.2 (2016): 158-170.

1.1.4. Collaboration

1.2. English in 21st century

1.2.1. 21st century communication dynamics present another fact that English is used quite intensively and extensively on daily basis life by the speakers who live in many nonnative English contexts. English is progressively used as an international language both among native and nonnative speakers and among nonnative and nonnative speakers (Acar, 2009).

1.2.1.1. Pattiwael, Athriyana Santye. "Addressing 21st Century Communication Skills: Some Emerging Issues from Eil Pedagogy & Intercultural Communicative Competence." IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education) 3.2 (2016): 158-170.

1.2.2. English has gained global currency in the majority of 21st century communication process.

1.2.2.1. Pattiwael, Athriyana Santye. "Addressing 21st Century Communication Skills: Some Emerging Issues from Eil Pedagogy & Intercultural Communicative Competence." IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education) 3.2 (2016): 158-170.

1.2.3. that 21st Communication Skills should not only be perceived (and later be approached) from the perspective of using English as in the interaction among native speakers in which native speakerism and native likeness are the standard of usage and level of acceptance (Trudgill & Hannah, 1994). Rather, these skills should also be contextualized in the reality of intercultural communication by embracing the fact that English as an International Language is used to communicate with people from different nations, languages and cultural backgrounds.

1.3. English to Support Their Employment

1.3.1. What societies need in the 21st century has made learning environment challenging and interesting. The use of English and the real world and the students experiences in their job setting has led to innovative learning in their communicative tasks.

1.3.1.1. Anwar, Djasminar. "ENGLISH AND TECHNOLOGY ARE KEYS FOR 21ST CENTURY TO EMBRACE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0." PROCEEDINGS UNIVERSITAS PAMULANG 1.1 (2020).

2. Research Method

2.1. Designed Based Research

2.1.1. Definition

2.1.1.1. DBR is a new paradigm or methodology in educational research that is based on both theory and previous research with the aim of improving educational practice. It is conducted in the real, complex, and messy learning/teaching contexts through iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, and implementation mediated by some interventions. It originates from real educational problems and/or challenges supported by educational theories, and ends with design principles and/or learning theories subject to continuous refinement and improvement. Thus, the products/outputs of DBR are design principles, learning theories, interventions, curricular products, instructional tools, and/or practical solutions/prescriptions.

2.1.1.1.1. Kennedy-Clark, Shannon. "Research by Design: Design-Based Research and the Higher Degree Research student." Journal of Learning Design 6.2 (2013): 26-32.

2.1.1.2. Wang and Hannafin (2005: p6): a systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories.

2.1.1.2.1. Abdallah, Mahmoud. "Design-Based Research (DBR) in Educational Enquiry and Technological Studies: A Version for PhD Students Targeting the Integration of New Technologies and Literacies into Educational Contexts." Online Submission (2014).

2.1.1.3. It attempts to create a new paradigm for educational research that relies on progressive refinement of design of environments and theories of learning in tandem. In this way, it is a valuable option to use if new interventions, innovations, and educational practices based on new ICTs are to be investigated (Walker, 2006; Wang & Hannafin, 2005).

2.1.1.3.1. Abdallah, Mahmoud. "Design-Based Research (DBR) in Educational Enquiry and Technological Studies: A Version for PhD Students Targeting the Integration of New Technologies and Literacies into Educational Contexts." Online Submission (2014).

2.1.1.4. DBR, also referred to as educational design research, is a common approach for studying blended synchronous learning as the research community tries to assess the most effective design for this type of environment (e.g., Wang & Huang, 2018; Wang et al., 2017)

2.1.1.4.1. Zydney, Janet Mannheimer, Zachary Warner, and Lauren Angelone. "Learning through experience: Using design based research to redesign protocols for blended synchronous learning environments." Computers & Education 143 (2020): 103678.

3. Finding and Discussion

4. Instructional Media

4.1. ASSURE

4.1.1. ASSURE model is designed to help teachers plan lessons that effectively integrate classroom use of technology and media.

4.1.1.1. Analyze Learners

4.1.1.2. State Standards & Objectives

4.1.1.3. Select Strategies, Technology, Media and Materials

4.1.1.4. Utilize Technology, Media and Materials

4.1.1.5. Require Learners Participation

4.1.1.6. Evaluate and Revision

5. Keyword

5.1. Educational Technology

5.2. ASSURE Model

5.3. Freshmen

5.4. Speaking Communication

5.5. 21st century skills