Problem 8: Wear and tear

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Problem 8: Wear and tear by Mind Map: Problem 8:   Wear and tear

1. Joint damage

2. Knee physical exam

2.1. Include the following steps

2.1.1. 1. intro

2.1.2. 2. inspection

2.1.2.1. gait

2.1.2.2. valgus/varus deformity

2.1.2.3. quadriceps wasting

2.1.2.4. temperature

2.1.3. 3. palpation

2.1.3.1. joint effusion tests

2.1.3.1.1. Patellar sign (large effusion)

2.1.3.1.2. bulge sign (small effusion)

2.1.3.2. patellar position

2.1.4. 4. move

2.1.4.1. active/passive, knee flexion/ extension

2.1.5. 5. special test

2.1.5.1. anterior drawer test

2.1.5.1.1. for ACL

2.1.5.2. posterior drawer test

2.1.5.2.1. for PCL

2.1.5.3. Valgus stress test

2.1.5.3.1. for MCL

2.1.5.4. Varus stress test

2.1.5.4.1. for LCL

2.1.5.5. McMurray's test

2.1.5.5.1. for meniscus

2.1.5.6. Apley's compression test

2.1.5.6.1. for meniscal tear

2.1.6. 6. conclude

3. Complications of OA

3.1. Sleep disruption

3.2. Reduced productivity

3.3. Pain and Stiffness

3.4. Mobility and Physical Challenges

3.5. Other Health Conditions

4. Management of OA

4.1. Non-Pharmacological

4.1.1. Lifestyle modifications

4.1.2. Weight loss

4.1.3. Physiotherapy

4.1.4. Assistive devices

4.2. Pharmacological

4.2.1. Analgesic

4.2.1.1. Glucocorticoids

4.2.1.2. NSAIDs

4.2.1.3. Acetaminophen

4.2.2. Intra-articular injection

4.2.2.1. Glucocorticoids

4.2.3. Supplement

4.2.3.1. Glucosamine

4.2.3.2. Chondroitin

4.3. Surgical

4.3.1. Total Knee Arthroplasty

4.3.1.1. Procedure

4.3.1.1.1. 1. Skin Incision

4.3.1.1.2. 2. Femoral resection/resurfacing

4.3.1.1.3. 3. Tibial resection/resurfacing

4.3.1.1.4. 4. Patella resection/resurfacing

4.3.1.1.5. 5. Completed TKA

5. Approval Process

5.1. Could Be

5.1.1. Device

5.1.1.1. Classified into

5.1.1.1.1. Low Risk

5.1.1.1.2. Intermediate Risk

5.1.1.1.3. High Risk

5.1.2. Drug

5.1.2.1. Takes

5.1.2.1.1. 12 years

5.1.2.2. Steps include

5.1.2.2.1. Discovery

5.1.2.2.2. Preclinical Research

5.1.2.2.3. Clinical Trials

5.1.2.2.4. Post Surveillance

6. Anatomy of knee & leg

6.1. Articulation

6.1.1. superiorly

6.1.1.1. rounded condyles of femur

6.1.2. inferiorly

6.1.2.1. condyles of tibia with meniscus

6.1.3. anteriorly

6.1.3.1. patella articulating with distal femur

6.2. Ligaments

6.2.1. include

6.2.1.1. Extracapsular

6.2.1.1.1. Medial collateral ligament

6.2.1.1.2. Lateral collateral ligament

6.2.1.2. Intracapsular

6.2.1.2.1. ACL

6.2.1.2.2. PCL

6.3. compartments of leg

6.3.1. includes

6.3.1.1. anterior

6.3.1.2. lateral

6.3.1.3. Posterior

6.3.1.3.1. divided by transverse septum into

7. Osteoarthritis

7.1. Arrises

7.1.1. Primary

7.1.1.1. Related. to

7.1.1.1.1. Age

7.1.2. Secondary

7.1.2.1. Related to

7.1.2.1.1. Inciting Event

7.2. Involves

7.2.1. Hyaline Cartilage Breakdown

7.2.2. Abnormal Chondrocytes

7.3. Seen as

7.3.1. Reduced Joint Space

7.3.2. Eburnation of Supchondral Bone

7.3.3. Osteophytes

7.3.4. Subchondral cyst

7.4. Affects

7.4.1. Weight-bearing jointa

7.4.2. DIP, PIP & 1st CMC