The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment by Mind Map: The Enlightenment

1. Ideas of the Philosophes

1.1. Was an eighteenth- century philosophical movement of intellectuals.

1.2. Reason= application of the scientific method to understand life.

1.3. Reason, Natural law, hope, progress were common and important words for thinkers.

1.4. John Locke and Isaac Newton were the principal influences of thinkers.

2. The role of philosphy

2.1. There were writers, professors, journalists, economists, and above all, social reformers.

2.2. They came from nobility and middle class.

2.3. To the philosophers philosophy was about changing the world.

2.4. The use of reason and spirit rational criticism were to be applied every day.

2.4.1. Also religion and politics.

2.5. In the first half of the eighteenth century, three individuals dominated intellectual landscape.

3. Montesquieu

3.1. Was a french noble, who tried to find the natural laws that govern social and political relationships of human beings.

3.2. He stated that the English goverment had three branches.

3.2.1. Executive Monarch

3.2.2. Legislative Parliament

3.2.3. Judicial The courts and laws

3.3. The goverment functioned through a separation of Powers

3.3.1. A goverment in which three branches limit and control each other thrugh a system of checks and balances.

4. Voltaire

4.1. A parisian that came of a middle class family, who, with his writtings became a wealthy and famus man

4.2. He was known because of challenging and christianity and church.

4.3. He fighted for tolerance in religion, specially in France.

4.4. He thought that the world was created by a clockmaker (God) and placed it to work at its own natural laws.

5. Diderot

5.1. Denis Diderot went to the University of Paris and his father hoped he would do a career in law or church.

5.1.1. But Diderot became a writer and he wanted to change the general way of thinking.

5.1.2. The encyclopedia became a weapon in the old French society.

6. New social sciences

6.1. The philosophes believed in Newton methods to discovered natural laws.

6.2. Adam Smith have been viewed as the founders of modern social science of economic.

6.2.1. he made the state to leave economy and the doctrine became known as Lasssez-faire.

6.3. Smithe gave the government only the basic roles.

6.3.1. Protect society from invasion.

6.3.2. Defend citizens from injustice.

6.3.3. Keep up certain public works. Roasd ans canals

7. The spread of ideas

7.1. Women's rights

7.1.1. Men proclaimed that the nature of women made them inferior.

7.1.2. During the XVIII, female thinkers began to express their ideas about improving women's condition.

7.1.3. Mary Wollstonecraft who was an english writer, made a huge impact in these changes, She stated that because women and men had the ability to reason, they should have the same rights regarding education, economy and political life.

7.2. The social contract

7.2.1. One of the most important philosophers of the Enlightenment was Rousseau. He published the social contract on 1762, his mayor work.

7.2.2. In the social contract, society agrees to be governed by it's general will. General will, represents whats best for the community.

7.3. The growth of reading

7.3.1. Most of the ideas of the enlightenment were spread through books. The growth of publishing and public reading was had a huge impact because before only elite groups could read

7.3.2. The invention of newspapers and magazines was a mayor aspect of growth regarding publishing and reading. These were cheap and found all around town. People reunited at coffeehouses to discuss important matters.

7.3.3. Enlightenment ideas were also spread in the Salons. These were important rooms were people from the upper-class reunited to talk about new ideas of philosophers. Salons reunited all kind of people such as, artist, aristocrats, government officials.

7.4. Religion in the enlightenment

7.4.1. Philosophes attacked the Church, disagreed with their ideas. But most of Europeans were still Christians who believed in God and his power. They wanted a personal devotion to him.

7.4.2. There were new religious movements. Methodism in England was one of them to which many people converted.

8. Enlightenment and the arts

8.1. Architecture and arts

8.1.1. Louis XIV had made a big impact on Europe.

8.1.2. One of the greatest architects was Balthasar Neumann. He made part of the church, the palace of the prince, and more.

8.1.3. Rococo a new artistic style spread on Europe. Rococo emphasized grace, charm and gentle action.

8.1.4. Rococo appeal his evident in the work of Antoine Watteau. he paints gentleman and ladies in elegant dresses but it suggest sadness too.

8.2. Music

8.2.1. In the XVIII century Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote classical music.

8.2.2. Haydn spend all his adult life as musical director.

8.2.3. Mozart wrote music passionately and was a truly child prodigy.

9. Philosophes

9.1. Descartes

9.1.1. He recognized at least three main ideas: The idea of God The idea of finite mind The idea of infinite bogy

9.2. Locke

9.2.1. He refused the theory of the divine right He believed that people endowed with natural rights to life, liberty, and property. If rulers who fail to protect those rights may be removed by the people, by force if necessary.

9.3. Kant

9.3.1. Transcendental Dialect The soul The whole world God

9.4. Adam Smith

9.4.1. His most famous work was the Wealth of Nations. He believed in the importance of Free markets Assembly-line production methods Gross domestic product (GDP)

9.5. Poullain de la Barre

9.5.1. He used Cartesianism to the 'question of women' and equality. he wrote about social philosophy of women's and feminism. He won the social equality between women and men.

9.6. Olympe de Gouges

9.6.1. De Gouges was recognized for his passion towards human rights, especially equality for women She wrote pamphlets during the French Revolution Calling for slave emancipation Rights for single mothers and orphans Free speech for women In 1791 she wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen It declared that women and men are equal Thus women should be afforded the same rights as men

9.7. Mary Wollstonecraft

9.7.1. She thought and was clear that men and women should be educated in the same way. Her voice was lost and forgotten for a long time. Until the theorists of 20th century feminism rescued their advanced ideas. Wollstonecraft's vindictive mood stemmed from his own experience. The influential London publisher Joseph Johnson published his works. The essay Reflections on the education of girls (1787), where he insisted on the urgency of culturally training young women

9.8. Rousseau

9.8.1. Swiss philosopher Together with Voltaire and Montesquieu, he is among the great thinkers of the Enlightenment in France Had a concept of progress His political and social ideas preluded the French Revolution. His literary sensibility anticipated romanticism and, due to the new and fruitful concepts that he introduced in the field of education. In The Social Contract (1762), Rousseau tries to articulate the integration of individuals in the community. The citizen's demands for freedom must be guaranteed through an ideal social contract that stipulates the total commitment of each associate to the community.

9.8.2. He is considered the father of modern pedagogy.

10. Juana Luna, Manuela Builes and Paula Piñeros