The rules that govern how statements in computer programming language must be constructed.
Examples: Incorrectly spelling a keyword Using the wrong brackets Leaving off the matching bracket Leaving off the end statement symbol (;)
The meaning conveyed by a collection of staments.
They are portable (be able to run on different machines)
English-like/Easier to understand
Different languages are developed for different tasks
FORTRAN(FORmula TRANslation Language) intended for mathematical and scientific programming
COBOL(Common Business-Oriented Language) for developing business and data-processing applications.
ALGOL(ALGOrithmic Language) introduced structured programming and led to the development of C and Pascal.
BASIC(Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) gave many an easy introduction to programming
Object Orientated Languages (SMALLTALK, C++ and Java) have taken structured programming one step further.
One instruction = many machine code instructions
One instruction = one machine code instruction
Machine specific, machine-oriented
Less easy to write and debug
Translational program that converts source code into object code
Converting HLL into an equivalent LLL so that it can be executed
Compiled object code can be executed by the computer
Lexical analysis, Remove all spaces and comments and look for reserved words such as do/while/if/etc. Compiler produces a new version of the code.
Syntax analysis, Program is checked against the syntax rules (brackets match, do matches with while). Syntax errors are reported.
Code generation, The machine code that will be run by the computer is created. Any standard library functions are linked into the final compiled program.
Enables web pages to be created without needing to know or remember the syntax of a range of HTML instructions.
Data Base Management Systems enable database to be created without needing to write specific code. Enable data dictionaries and files to be created, manages data, creates reports
Computer Aided Software Engineering enable stages of system development cycle to be implemented and managed in an integrated manner., Tools include: summarizing initial requirements, developing flow diagrams, scheduling tasks, preparing documentation, etc.
Developed by recording a series of keystrokes which can be referenced later. Referencing may be provided by using a set of keystrokes, known as 'shortcut keys'. Saves time and effort by automating repetitive processes.