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1. Approaches to Curriculum Development

1.1. Curriculum Planning

1.1.1. Learning Theory Learners psychological preparation. Zone of Proximal Development by Vygotsky

1.1.2. Acquiring knowledge

1.1.3. Societal considerations Political Factor Social Factor Economic Factor Technological Factors Environmental Factors

1.1.4. Sources of Design Science the scientific method provides meaning for the curriculum design Society Schools should draw its deals for the curriculum from the analysis of the social situations. Eternal and Divine sources Designers should draw from past for guidance as to what is appropriate content. Knowledge “What knowledge is most worth?” Learner Curriculum should be derived from what we know about the learners, how he or she learns, from attitudes, generates interest and develop values

1.2. Curriculum Design

1.2.1. Models of Curriculum Design Curriculum designing is conducted stage by stage. Some of the models discussed consider the process to be more important than the objectives. Other models take objectives to be the most important feature of curriculum design. Generally, all modelsstress the importance of considering a variety of factors that influence curriculum. Kerr’s Model Wheeler’s Model Tyler’s Model Process Model The Objectives Model

1.2.2. Task Analysis Process in Curriculum Design Establish or obtain general goals of education Formulating goals or statements of endpoints or outcomes of education-statement of purpose. Selection of Content Validity – should be authentic Significance / relevance – consistent with social realities, pursues needs of the time Balance of the depths and breath of content – coverage Learnability – adjustable to learner’s ability Appropriateness – parallel with learners needs and interest Utility – Useful on the performance of life activities Identify teacher role The most effective teachers in this context are those who convey the purposefulness of schooling and getting the most out of every available minute of the school-day, while facilitating students’ growing capacity to manage their own learning. Selection of Learning Experience Appropriateness – should be appropriate and suitable to the content, activities, and levels of development of learners Variety – Should include minds on, hands on, and authentic learning experiences. Optimal value – Should encourage learners to continue learning in their own. Feasibility – in terms of human, physical, and financial resources. Time allotment Refers to specification of definite item for subjects/ course; amount of time given to a subject Considers such factors as; (a) importance of subject, (b) child’s ability, (c) grade level, (d) average number of days per hour. Identify student behavior and role Refer to the objectives/outcomes required Evaluate to see if the intended outcomes have been achieved Grade placement

1.2.3. Dimensions of curriculum designs (BASICS) Basics. There should be equitable distribution of content, time, experiences, and other elements of **design** Articulation and Alignment Scope Integrations Continuity and Progression Sequence

1.3. Curriculum Implementation

1.3.1. Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabi and subjects. The process involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or experience. It is important to note that curriculum implementation cannot take place without the learner. Factors that influence the curriculum implementation The teacher The Learners Resource Materials and Facilities. Stakeholders The School Environment Culture and Ideology Instructional Supervision Assessment

1.4. Curriculum Evaluation

1.4.1. Curriculum Evaluation Approaches Bureaucratic Autocratic Democratic Norm-Referenced Criterion-Referenced

1.4.2. Forms of Evaluation Formative Evaluation It ensures that all aspects of the program or project are likely to produce success. It provides information that can be used to stop doubtful projects from being implemented. It is therefore a conceptual and physical exercise that is carried out before a program comes to an end. Summative Evaluation This type of evaluation assesses whether or not the project or program can perform as the originators and designers intended. It considers cost effectiveness in terms of money, time and personnel. It also assesses the training that teachers might need in order to implement a program successfully. It determines whether a new curriculum program, syllabus or subject is better than the one it is intended to replace or other alternatives.

1.4.3. Evaluation Methods and Tools

1.5. Curriculum Improvement/ Change

1.5.1. Curriculum Improvement. Enriching, modifying certain aspects without changing fundamental conceptions/ elements/ structure.

1.5.2. Curriculum Change. Basic alteration in the structure and design of learning experiences based on conceptions which maybe at school, division, or national level. To make difference by shifting to new goals and means. Sources of Curriculum Change and Innovation Types of Change Forms of Change Strategies and Models for Curriculum Change and Innovation Models of Curricular Innovation Conditions for Successful Implementation of Innovations

2. Concepts


2.1.1. It comprises the experiences of children for which the school is responsible.

2.1.2. It has content.

2.1.3. It is planned.

2.1.4. considers the learners and their interaction with each other, the teacher and the materials.

2.1.5. It is a series of courses to be taken by students.

2.1.6. Evaluates output and outcomes

2.2. TYPES

2.2.1. Formal Curriculum

2.2.2. Extra-Mural Curriculum.

2.2.3. Informal Curriculum

2.2.4. Actual Curriculum

2.2.5. Core Curriculum

2.2.6. Hidden/Collateral Curriculum Intended The administrator’s point of view. Implemented The teacher’s point of view. Attained or realized The student’s point of view.


2.3.1. Rationalists Perspectives • True knowledge is achieved by the mind. • Knowledge is a series of revelations. Curriculum • Subject matter of symbol and idea Learner • Information Recipient Teacher • Source of ideas, facts and information Learning Experience • Drills, Lectures, subject-based

2.3.2. Empiricists Perspectives • True knowledge is derived from evidence. • Authentic knowledge comes through the senses. Curriculum • Subject matter of the physical world Learner • Information recipient Teacher • Demonstrator of process Learning Experience • Lecture • Teacher centered

2.3.3. Pragmatists Perspectives • hypothetical and changing constantly. • experienced. • is not to be imposed on the learner. • a personal activity. • socially constructed. Curriculum • Problem solving • Hypothetical • Subject to change • Problems • Project Learner • Experience • Knowledge Teacher • Researcher, • Project • Director Learning Experience • Inquiry • Participatory • Problem Solving

2.3.4. Existentialists or Phenomenologists Perspectives • Knowledge is personal and subjective. • Knowledge is one’s own unique perception of one’s world. • Education should be less formal. • Curricula should be diverse, not common for all. Curriculum • Subject matter of choices • Not rigid Learner • Ultimate chooser Search for personal identity Teacher • Facilitator of choices Learning Experience • Inquiry • Discovery


2.4.1. Purpose (goals and objectives) Purpose of a curriculum • is based on the social aspirations of society, • outlines the goals and aims of the program, and • is expressed as goals and objectives. Sources of Goals • Learners – the purpose, interest, developmental needs and characteristics of the learner should guide the choice of appropriate goals • Societal – the values and behaviors defined as desirable by a given society help shape the goals of education in the society. • Fund of Knowledge – Human knowledge that has been accumulated and organized for universal use should be taken into account in shaping the goals. Level of Goals • Global and National Goals • Institutional Goals • School level or Department Goals • Program or Curricular Goals • Classroom or Instructional Goals Three categories of goals and objectives • cognitive, referring to intellectual tasks, • psychomotor, referring to muscular skills, and • affective, referring to feeling and emotions.

2.4.2. Content or Subject Matter • is divided into bodies of knowledge, for example, mathematics, English and science; and in the case of science – by disciplines; math • outlines the desired attitudes and values; • includes cherished skills; • is determined by prevailing theories of knowledge; and • caters to ideological, vocational and technical considerations.

2.4.3. Methods • deal with teaching and learning experiences, and • involve organizational strategies

2.4.4. Evaluation • select appropriate content based on the aims and objectives of the curriculum; • select appropriate methods to address the content and purpose; • check the effectiveness of methods and learning experiences used; • check on the suitability and the appropriateness of the curriculum in answering social needs; • give feedback to the planners, learners, teachers, industry and society; and • provide a rationale for making changes


3.1. Curriculum Instruction and Assessment Triad

3.1.1. . Curriculum is the required intended knowledge and skills that the instructor uses and the students grasp is called curriculum. Instruction is referred to the methods of teaching as well as the learning activities that are used to help students to develop meaningful understanding of the course content and course objectives. The what and how of instruction must align with what is essential to learn as described by the curriculum. Assessment is the process of utilizing varied assessment methods to measure the outcomes of the education and student achievement.

3.2. Salient Features Of Science and Math Instruction

3.2.1. The teacher understands that instruction in mathematics and science should engage students in a variety of learning activities that are purposefully designed to connect with what they already know and motivate them to work toward developing deeper understanding. Curriculum Consideration for the Learners Learning Activities.

3.3. Assessment in Science and Math Instruction

3.3.1. Formative Assessment

3.3.2. Summative Assessment


4.1. Cognitive Domain

4.1.1. Six Categories 1.Knowledge 2.Comprehension 3.Application 4.Analysis 5.Synthesis 6.Evaluation

4.2. Affective Domain

4.2.1. Five Stages 1. Receiving 2. Responding 3. Valuing 4.Organization 5. Characterization

4.3. Psychomotor Domain

4.3.1. Seven Categories 1. Perception 2. Set 3. Guided Response 4. Mechanism 5. Complex Overt Response 6. Adaptation 7. Origination


5.1. What Is a School Curriculum?

5.1.1. • The learner should experience a change in behavior after completing a program. Ideally, the behavior changes should be those expected by the educators involved in the teaching-learning process.

5.1.2. • One or more people select content and learning experiences. Their selection is based on specified criteria and/or influenced by a number of factors.

5.1.3. • There is a source from which content and learning experiences are selected.

5.2. Reasons for Designing a School Curriculum

5.2.1. Responsibility of the school to develop the following: • the capacity of the learner • the manipulative skills of the learner • the attitudes and value systems of the learner.

5.3. Factors That Influence a School-Based Curriculum Design

5.3.1. Number of Subject Options Available

5.3.2. National Goals of Education

5.3.3. The Learner

5.3.4. Resource Availability

5.4. The Process of School Curriculum Designing

5.4.1. Evaluation

5.4.2. Organization of Learning Experiences

5.4.3. Organization of Content

5.4.4. Selection of Content

5.4.5. Formulation of Objectives

5.4.6. Diagnosis of Needs

5.4.7. Selection of Learning Experiences

5.5. Curriculum Development and Instructional Development