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Plants Unit by Mind Map: Plants Unit

1. Reproduction

1.1. Sexual

1.1.1. Seedless plants

1.1.1.1. Non-Vascular

1.1.1.1.1. - dominant gametophyte plant

1.1.1.2. Vascular

1.1.1.2.1. - dominant sporophyte plant

1.1.1.3. -unprotected zygote, embryo, and gametophyte

1.1.2. Seed Plants

1.1.2.1. - protected embryo and zygote

1.1.2.2. Gymnosperms

1.1.2.2.1. - unprotected seeds develop on upper surface of reproductive structures

1.1.2.2.2. - single fertilization

1.1.2.2.3. Xylem consists of cells called TRACHEIDS

1.1.2.3. Angiosperms

1.1.2.3.1. - protected seeds develop within ovary wall

1.1.2.3.2. - double fertlization

1.1.2.3.3. Xylem consists of TRACHEIDS and VESSEL elements

1.1.2.3.4. Life Cycle

1.2. Asexual

1.2.1. Natural Propagation

1.2.1.1. - growth from roots, stems or leaves

1.2.2. Artificial Propagation

1.2.2.1. Splitting

1.2.2.1.1. - split plant into 2 or more; each piece contains roots & shoots

1.2.2.2. Grafting

1.2.2.2.1. - shoot or root part is cut and joined to vascular combium

1.2.2.2.2. - helps repair damaged trees, quicken fruit production

1.2.2.3. Cutting

1.2.2.3.1. Leaf Cutting

1.2.2.3.2. Stem Cutting

1.2.2.3.3. Root Cutting

1.2.2.4. Layering

1.2.2.4.1. Simple Layering

1.2.2.4.2. Air Layering

1.2.2.5. Culturing

1.2.2.5.1. - cell or small piece of tissue is placed in a sterile nutrient medium

1.2.2.5.2. - promotes shoot and root growth as tiny plantlet develops

2. Organs

2.1. Roots

2.1.1. Root Diagram

2.1.1.1. Epidermis - maximize surface area that absorbs water

2.1.1.2. Cortex - transports substances between vascular tissue and epidermis

2.1.1.3. Endodermis - surrounded by waterproof band that controls absorption of water & minerals

2.1.1.3.1. Vascular bundles - arrangement of bundles (depends on whether MONOCOT or DICOT)

2.2. Leaves

2.2.1. Leaf Diagram

2.2.1.1. - flat lead blade is attached directly to the stem or via a petiole

2.2.1.2. Veins - made up of vascular tissue

2.2.2. Lead Diagram (Inside)

2.2.2.1. Epidermal cell - produce a waxy cuticle to prevent evaporation

2.2.2.2. Palisade mesophyll cells - made up of parenchyma cells that perform photosynthesis

2.2.2.3. Spongy mesophyll cells - made up of parenchyma cells loosely packed to allow gases to flow between them

2.3. Stems

2.3.1. - provide support for leaves, flowers, and seeds

2.3.2. Herbaceous

2.3.2.1. - flexible

2.3.3. Bark

2.3.3.1. - hard, woody

2.3.3.2. - contain tissue from XYLEM, PHLOEM, cork, and tough outer coating

2.4. Flower

2.4.1. - angiosperm sexual reproduction involves flower organs

2.4.2. Flower Diagram

2.4.2.1. Sepals - protect flower bud

2.4.2.2. Petals - attract pollinators

2.4.2.3. Stamens - male reproductive system

2.4.2.4. Pistils - female reproductive system

3. Vascular Plant Body

3.1. Plant Tissues

3.1.1. Meristematic tissue

3.1.1.1. - areas where new cells are produced by Mitosis

3.1.2. Dermal tissue

3.1.2.1. - outer layers of cells that form a protective covering

3.1.3. Ground tissue

3.1.3.1. - multi functional tissue inside a plant

3.1.4. Vascular tissue

3.1.4.1. - internal system of tubes that run throughout the stems

3.1.4.1.1. - connects roots & leaves

3.1.4.2. Xylem

3.1.4.2.1. - transports water, minerals, and other substances from roots to leaves

3.1.4.3. Phloem

3.1.4.3.1. - transports sugars to where needed, often from leaves to roots for storage

3.1.4.3.2. Pressure Flow Model - hypothesizes how sucrose moves from a source

3.1.4.3.3. Two types of cells: SIEVE TUBE elements and COMPANION cells

3.2. Plant Cells

3.2.1. Parenchyma cells

3.2.1.1. - flexible, think-walled spherical cells found throughout plant

3.2.2. Collenchyma cells

3.2.2.1. - often elongated, occur in long strands or cylinders

3.2.2.1.1. - provide support

3.2.3. Sclerenchyma cells

3.2.3.1. Sclerites

3.2.3.1.1. - short with an irregular shape

3.2.3.1.2. - distributed randomly

3.2.3.2. Fibre cells

3.2.3.2.1. - needle shaped

3.2.3.2.2. - form tough, elastic tissue stacked end-to-end

3.2.4. - typical plant cells have structures animal cells do not

3.2.4.1. (i.e. cell wall, chloroplasts, large central vacuole)

4. Growth & Development

4.1. - act as chemical signals between cells and tissues

4.2. Hormones

4.2.1. - regulate differentiation of plant cells, growth, and response

4.2.2. Stimulatory Hormones

4.2.2.1. Auxins

4.2.2.1.1. - can stimulate cell division, cell elongation, regulate cell expansion

4.2.2.2. Cytokinins

4.2.2.2.1. - stimulate cell division, prevent aging of leaves

4.2.2.3. Gibberellins

4.2.2.3.1. - stimulate cell elongation and seed germination

4.2.3. Inhibitory Hormones

4.2.3.1. Ethylene

4.2.3.1.1. - promotes fruit ripening

4.2.3.2. Abscisic Acid

4.2.3.2.1. - induces and maintains seed dormancy, inhibits shoot growth, closes stomata

4.3. Responses

4.3.1. Tropic Response

4.3.1.1. - growth responses to external stimulation

4.3.1.2. - from one direction in environment

4.3.2. Nastic Response

4.3.2.1. - a movement of the plant that is reversible, repeatable

4.3.2.2. - does NOT include growth

4.3.3. Phototropism

4.3.3.1. - growth response to light produced by unequal distribution of AUXIN

4.3.4. Gravitropism

4.3.4.1. - a "positive" growth response of the roots downward

4.3.4.2. OR - a "negative" growth response of stems upward

4.3.5. Thigmotropism

4.3.5.1. - a growth response to mechanical stimuli

4.4. Growth Factors

4.4.1. Sunlight

4.4.2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

4.4.3. Water

4.4.4. Soil pH

4.4.4.1. - each plant grows best within a NARROW pH range

4.4.4.1.1. Ex. pine, blueberry, and potatoes thrive in acid soil

4.4.4.1.2. Ex. lawn grass, beans, pears and lettuce thrive in alkaline soil

4.4.5. Macro & micronutrients

4.4.5.1. Macronutrients - needed in amounts < 1% of a plant's dry weight

4.4.5.1.1. i.e. Nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulfur

4.4.5.2. Micronutrients - needed in amounts less than 1% of a plant's dry weight

5. Succession

5.1. Ecological Succession

5.1.1. - change in an ecosystem when one community replaces another

5.1.2. Ecological disturbances - events that change the structure of a biological community

5.1.2.1. - sometimes destroy all actively growing organisms

5.1.2.2. Ex. forest fires, floods, volcanic eruptions, glaciers

5.2. Primary Succession

5.2.1. - establishment of a community in an area AFTER an ecological disturbance has left EXPOSED ROCK that does NOT have topsoil

5.2.2. Pioneer Species

5.2.2.1. LIVERWORTS are often the first species to colonize a barren area

5.2.2.2. BACTERIA, ALGAE, and LICHENS form pioneer community that can survive harsh conditions

5.2.2.3. - early organism die and begin to form soil as pioneer species grow

5.2.3. Area continues to change as larger plants move in

5.2.4. Changes continually occur until a stable CLIMAX COMMUNITY of plants and animals form

5.2.4.1. - remains stable until major disturbance occurs

5.3. Secondary Succession

5.3.1. - recolonization of area AFTER an ecological disturbance that has left soil IN TACT

5.4. Ecosystems with HIGH DIVERSITY are better able to withstand disease, competition from invasive species, and extreme weather events!