Reformation and Relgious Wars

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Reformation and Relgious Wars by Mind Map: Reformation and Relgious Wars

1. The Lutheran Reformation

1.1. Martin Luther: the 95 Theses

1.1.1. arguing against the sale and abuse of indulgences.

1.1.2. Prior: Pope Leo X sold special jubilee indulgence that pardoned all previous sins Johann Tetzel bought all these indulgences so he could be exempt from all purgatory.

1.2. Leipzig Debate in 1519

1.2.1. Luther and his opponent, Johann Eck, a capable Catholic theologian, argued about indulgences.

1.2.2. Luther had gone past just arguing about indulgences and began to deny the authority of the popes.

1.2.3. Johann Eck was able to identify Luther’s ideas with John Hus’ ideas, who was a heretic.

1.3. Luther's pamphlets

1.3.1. Address to the Nobility of the German Nation called for the princes of Germany to overthrow the papacy and establish their own reformed church

1.3.2. Babylonian Captivity Luther argued that a reform of monasticism was needed and that the clergy should choose if they want to remain virgins or get hitched

1.3.3. On the Freedom of a Christian Man argues what salvation really is. He argues about how it is faith alone that brings salvation through Jesus.

1.4. Events of the Diet of Worms in Jan 1521

1.4.1. Emperor Charles judged to be an Luther outlaw within the empire Emperor Charles demanded that Luther’s books be burned, Luther himself be captured and delivered directly to the emperor

1.4.2. Luther's protector: the Elector of Saxony protected Luther by sending him into hiding at the Wartburg Castle where he stayed for around a year. While in-hiding at Wartburg castle, Luther translated the New Testament into German. This German New Testament had sold out almost 200,000 copies. His achievement in this translation did not pull more people into Lutheranism because only 4-5 percent of the population in Germany was literate. Through the sermon was how Luther spread his ideas. The sermon was based on the original message of the Bible.

1.5. Spread of Lutheranism and Politics

1.5.1. 3/4 of clergy converted --> ez to work with ruling elites of cities --> elites regulate new churches

1.6. German Peasant's Revolt (mid 1520s)

1.6.1. Peasants dissatisfied with how their livelihoods were not touched by the gradual economic improvement of the sixteenth century

1.6.2. their lords had been abusing the peasants with new demands for taxes and other services.

1.6.3. Luther did not support this revolution of the peasants, he went so far as to call upon the German princes to kill the peasants. He responded this way because he knew that his reformation of the church heavily relied on the full support of the German princes and magistrates.

1.7. Luther's sacraments/ transubstantiation

1.7.1. The two that remained were the baptism, which signified rebirth through grace, and the Lord’s Supper.

1.7.2. Transubstantiation was the idea that the substance of bread and wine consumed in the rite is miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Jesus. Luther denied this idea but insisted that the presence of Jesus’s body and blood in the bread and wine given as a testament to God’s forgiveness of sin.

1.8. "Priesthood of all believers"

1.8.1. Luther meant that any one christian that followed the word of God were their own priest, this constituted the “priesthood of all believers.” The word of God in the Bible was the highest authority in all religious affairs. Priesthood was unnecessary in this sense.

2. Before the Reformation

2.1. John Wyclif

2.1.1. clergy had been corrupt for long time

2.1.2. Church should only hold authority over the bible, nothing else

2.1.3. Popes should be stripped of all their power and land

2.1.4. Condemned religious practices not mentioned in scripture, ie: pilgrimages, venerations of saints, medieval rituals and rites

2.1.5. His followers were known as the Lollards

2.2. John Hus

2.2.1. Elimination of worldliness and the corruption of clergy

2.2.2. His criticisms of the Church were listened to by the people --> Council of Constance persuaded him to come and talk with them --> Arrest him --> Condemn him for heresy --> burn him at stake The church did all that even though John Hus was granted safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund.

2.3. Reforms by the Council of Constance

2.3.1. Sacrosanta A general council of church received its authority from God and even the pope was subject to this council's authority.

2.3.2. Frequens meetings of this newfound council were regularly held so reform will not stop

2.3.3. Pope's Response Did not respond to any decrees passed by the council as the decrees diminished the popes' powers. deemed that any council that went over the popes' head was heretical

2.4. Pope Julius II as a symbol of bad Christianity

2.4.1. In spite of the Popes' duty to lead the Catholic church spiritually, Pope Julius II was heavily involved with warfare and politics

2.4.2. Pious christians disgusted

2.5. Alexander VI's corrupted activities

2.5.1. Raised his relatives to high levels of Power within the Papacy despite one of them being his mistress' brother

2.5.2. Practiced nepotism to the extent that he gave his son territory in the Papal States.

2.6. Corruption and Abuses in the Catholic Church

2.6.1. Wealthy nobles were often in high positions among the clergy despite not having qualifications.

2.6.2. High church officials often took over more than the church office in order to increase their personal revenues.

2.6.3. Church officeholders ignored their duties as spiritual leaders and hired unqualified people.

2.6.4. Complaints about the ignorance and ineptness of priests became common.

2.7. How Christians did not get what they sought? + indulgences

2.7.1. Christians were seeking meaningful religious expression and a certainty of salvation. Church had failed to provide them this certainty of salvation.

2.7.2. As a result, people sought to buy indulgences, which were remissions after death that could exempt people from punishment for sin.

2.8. Modern Devotion

2.8.1. taught that religious doctrine was not as important as it was made out to be

2.8.2. taught that how religiously you acted was more important than how you read, basically saying that your actions meant more than your words

2.8.3. Stressed need to follow Jesus' teachings

2.9. Clergy attempts at reforming the Church

2.9.1. The Oratory of Divine Love, which was a group of clergy and laymen that urged for reform through personal spiritual development and acts of charity Various religious writings were translated into languages that people could read in order to spur spirituality for the people.

3. The Extremist Reformers

3.1. Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

3.1.1. Preconditions Switzerland was a loose confederation of 13 states and they were theoretically part of the mess that was the Holy Roman Empire Many Swiss hated being the mercenary provider for Europe Swiss had desired Church reform since 1400

3.1.2. Reformation in Zurich Zwingli’s background Son of a relatively prosperous peasant Obtained both bachelor of arts and master of arts degrees at university in Vienna and Basel Was strongly influenced by Christian humanism Ordained as a priest in 1506 Accepted a parish post in rural Switzerland until his appointment as a cathedral priest in the Great minster of Zürich Zwingli became people’s priest Controversy during candidacy acts/beliefs that countered the Church’s teachings

3.1.3. The Marburg Colloquy An attempt to promote an alliance of the Swiss and German reformed churches by persuading the leaders of both groups. Protestan political leaders, especially Landgrave Philip, were the ones who called for this conference at Marburg so that the two religious leaders could resolve their differences.. Neither Zwingli or Luther could resolve their differences. Zwingli believed that the Lord’s Supper was supposed to be symbolic, but Luther insisted that the bread and wine were magically turned into the blood and body of christ. The Marburg Colloquy produced no agreement nor alliance.

3.1.4. Swiss Civil Wars War erupted between Swiss protestants and Catholic cantons. Zürich’s forces were defeated and Zwingli, found injured in battle by the enemy, was killed, cut up, and then burned. What was left of him was scattered. This civil war showed what religious differences would lead to. Martin Luther was smug when he heard of Zwingli’s death.

3.2. The Anabaptists

3.2.1. Government role in reformed church communities In reformed church communities, the government held a dominant and important role in church affairs. The anabaptists rejected this magisterial movement.

3.2.2. General Common Beliefs The true christian church was a voluntary association of believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth through baptism. People should be baptized as adults instead of children so as to not force anyone to accept the truth of the Bible, accentuating their belief that church was voluntary. Communities should be somewhat like democracies where everyone was equal. Since this was a democracy, these communities chose their own ministers since all Anabaptists were considered priests(with the exception of women). Anabaptists would have to suffer for their faith. The absolute separation of Church and state was required and that the government should be excluded from religion entirely.

3.2.3. Opinion on separation of Church and State supported it rejected the idea that the state should have a dominant role in church affairs, many other groups accepted it belief in absolute separation between church and state extended past the church and to its followers believed that the state should not even have any jurisdiction over Christians. In their eyes, God trumped human law and powers

3.2.4. Swiss Brethren Movement early group of Anabaptists whose ideas included adult baptism Their ideas frightened Zwingli so much that he expelled them from Zürich Because they had already been baptized at the Catholic Church, they were labeled as Rebaptists by their opponents Under roman law, being a Rebaptist was punishable by death As Swiss Brethren teachings spread, Anabaptists faced ruthless persecution, especially after the Peasants War

3.2.5. Anabaptists in Münster Anabaptists in Münster differed from other Anabaptists because many of the Anabaptists in Münster were identified as Melciorites, who were radicals that adhered to millenarianism They believed that the end of the world was neigh and Münster would be New Jerusalem Later on, they took control of the city and forced their beliefs on the town their fate was to be defeated by the Catholic prince-bishop of Münster gathered a large force and laid siege to the city, executing these radical Anabaptists

3.2.6. Mennonite Movement a movement led by Menno Simons This man was responsible for reviving Dutch anabaptism beliefs were that of peace, evangelical anabaptism, and a stress on separation of the world in order to emulate the life of Jesus followers of the Mennonite movement were subject to strict discipline with the consequence of excommunication from the teachings of Simons This was the Anabaptism that was free from its more extreme elements, this kind of Anabaptism practiced pacifist teachings, which was what Anabaptism originally was supposed to teach.

4. Calvinism

4.1. Background

4.1.1. Born in northern France to a rich non-clerical administrator for church so he was set up for success, as he could’ve been a priest who would receive salary and respect, but later, he studied to be a lawyer, still a respected and well-paid job nevertheless.

4.1.2. In his early adult years, he had a religious experience that convinced him he needed to learn about the truth and teach about God. In france, this could get you executed

4.1.3. While still in school, he met a church official who believed that the reformed church was the right church

4.1.4. Fled France because king henry I would execute protestants, or heretics in France’s eyes. Went to Basel in Switzerland, where the church was already reformed. Writes the Institutes of the Christian Religion, possibly the most important of Protestant works

4.2. Beliefs

4.2.1. Agreed a lot with Luther Justification by faith alone Absolute Sovereignty of God Priesthood of all believers NOT in agreement about the Eucharist: no spiritual presence in bread and wine, but he didn’t argue it was purely symbolic

4.2.2. The philosophy that Calvin was known for was called Predestination (he didn’t come up with it) When you're born, God has already decided whether you go to heaven or hell as God knows all. But you only know where you go when you die. Would you be among the saved (the elect) or the damned (the reprobate)? You couldn’t change God's decisions, but you could get an idea of which way you steered by taking a good look at yourself... how to know which u are <-- Professed faith in God. Led a “decent, godly life” Participated in baptism and communion

4.3. Calvin's Geneva

4.3.1. Calvin’s first try at establishing a community based on his philosophies ended up with his exile. Despite this, upon his return, city leaders agreed to give his ideas a chance: No remnants of Catholicism (relics, rosaries, etc), can’t name kids after saints, art, instrumental music, dancing, drama all forbidden, clothes and hairstyles must be modest and uniform, no gambling, no drunkenness, no overeating, censored Press, and adultery and speaking ill of clergy was punishable as crimes, No begging (Random rules)

4.3.2. Execution for serious stuff like rape, homicide, theft of large sums of money and counterfeiting

4.3.3. Banishment for heresy, adultery, working in any way with Catholics, and even having a noisy household

4.3.4. Other punishments included fines, public humiliation, public whipping, imprisonment

4.4. Impact

4.4.1. Geneva becomes hub of Protestant learning

4.4.2. People come from all over Europe to be educated in Calvinism

4.4.3. This is how Calvinism becomes the dominant protestant philosophy by the 17th century, and why Protestant communities have their roots in Calvinism.

5. The English Reformation

5.1. Henry's problem --> founding of the Anglican Church

5.1.1. The problem that Henry VII faced was that he wanted a male heir to succeed him as king of England, but he and his wife Catherine could not produce a male heir so he wants to divorce his wife. While married, Henry falls for Catherine’s lady in waiting, Anne Boleyn. When Henry reached out to the church to ask for an annulment with Catherine, he was rejected. As a solution, he gets a divorce in his own courts. Later, in the Act of Supremacy, Henry was declared the leader of the Church of England.

5.2. Henry's Church Rules

5.2.1. Very little is changed from the church under Henry and the previous church. The seven sacraments are still there, celibacy for clergy, and transubstantiation. But, now, Henry is the leader. His wife, Anne Boleyn is executed for adultery

5.3. Henry's Daughter, Mary's, Church Rules

5.3.1. She was the older step-sister of Edward. Wanted to return England to the roman catholic religion. Was married to Philip II of Spain. England loses her last possession in France. Nicknamed “Bloody Mary” after sentencing over 300 protestant heretics to burn at the stake.

5.4. Henry's son, Edward's, Church Rules

5.4.1. Archbishop Cranmer and other members of the Church of England start to move their church’s practices over to Protestant traditions rather than Catholic traditions. Clergy can now marry, images were eliminated, and authorized a new Protestant service spellout in the Common Book of Prayer.

5.5. Queen Elizabeth I's Church Rule

5.5.1. She was Mary’s half-sister. She bases her religious policy on moderation and compromise. Practiced politique: placing politics before religion. Came up with the idea of Elizabethan Settlement, which meant that everyone was Anglican in public, but could practice any religion in private as to relieve any religious tension in England. A New Act of Supremacy was used, but with different wording than what her father used. Her Act of Uniformity restored church service of the Book of Common Prayer. The Thirty-Nine Articles was released by the Anglican Church which preached their essential philosophies. These beliefs were between Lutheranism and Calvinsim, but they upset Catholics and Calvinists

6. Social Impact of the Reformation

6.1. Family Life

6.1.1. Catholicism had praised the family and even made it a sacrament, even though the Catholic Church’s high regard for abstinence from sex as the best way to becoming holy. To them, marriage was a means to an end, it was a way to control sex and to give it the reason of making babies.

6.1.2. This view was somewhat shared with Protestant reformers: Luther argued that sex in marriage was a way to avoid sex as a sinful act and Calvin argued that marriage is a way to have sex without sinning and should only be used in the case that people cannot ‘keep it in their pants’.

6.1.3. During the Reformation, both Catholics and Protestants began to think of marriage in a positive light. Especially Protestantantism where holiness and celibacy were disconnected and that familial love was the new emphasis.

6.1.4. Mostly, however, reality and preachings differed. Often, the husband played the role of master and the wife had the role of obedient servant whose main duty was to please their master/husband/ruler.

6.1.5. The wife’s other purpose was to bear children, for most women in this time, this was their only life path. For Catholics, having babies was punishment for the sin of Eve; and for protestants, having babies was more of a holy vocation

6.2. Education

6.2.1. Protestant secondary schools and universities were implemented because Protestants needed a body of believers who could read the bible on their own.

6.2.2. Successful integration of humanist methods in schools aimed towards a wider audience, in contrast with renaissance humanist schools (aimed at wealthy class)

6.2.3. Luther proposed what looks like the early ideas of a public school, though it was not mandatory. Protestants were convinced that the church needed good Christians and pastors and that the state needed good workers and citizens.

6.2.4. Philip Melanchthon, Luther’s peer and the Teacher of Germany (Praeceptor Germaniae), devised a structure for schools where students were separated in groups based on their age and knowledge base.

6.2.5. Protestants in Germany successfully introduced the secondary school where liberal arts and religious instruction was taught. Following Melanchthon’s structure John Calvin’s private school had seven classes that taught a variety of subjects.

6.3. Religious Practices

6.3.1. Throughout the Reformation, several practices of the Catholic Church were wholly abolished such indulgences, veneration of relics and saints, pilgrimages, monasticism and clerical celibacy.

6.3.2. Saints days were also abolished, so Protestants only had one day of the week off, Sunday.

6.3.3. Religious ceremonies were replaced with individual prayer and collective worship on their holy day.

6.3.4. Protestant reformers even tried to eliminate entertainment

6.3.5. Luckily, these attempts at ‘killing the mood’ were all failures as there was an importance in social life and fun.

7. Catholic Reformation

8. French Wars of Religion

8.1. Huguenots

8.1.1. what the French Calvinists were called

8.1.2. The classes of these people varied widely from artisans and shopkeepers to merchants and lawyers to members of the nobility

8.1.3. 40 to 50% of the aristocratic nobility were Huguenots --> powerful aristocratic families constituted a power shift from Catholicism to Calvinism

8.2. Religion of the Valois family

8.2.1. staunchly loyal to Catholicism

8.2.2. After the death of Henry II series of weak and neurotic sons succeeded him, the power of the Valois family was actually held by their mother, Catherine de’ Mediciv She attempted to help her family by trying to reach religious compromise between the Catholics and the Calvinists attempt at defusing political tensions was a failure as both religions had some fanatics that were unable to let go of their practices

8.3. ultra-Catholics

8.3.1. led by the Guise family: built up their power by possessing large portions of northern/northwestern France recruiting and paying for large armies with their client-patronage system support they got from the papacy and Jesuits who loved how undying their loyalty for Catholicism was

8.4. French Civil Wars and politiques

8.4.1. issue: growing discontent that the towns, provinces, and nobility had of the increasing power of monarchical centralization

8.4.2. Politiques were those who were public figures that placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of civil war.

8.5. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

8.5.1. Guise’s powerful duke massacred a peaceful gathering of Huguenots Catholic and Calvinist parties had apparently reconciled through marriage of the Valois and Bourbon families

8.5.2. started when the Guise family persuaded the king and his mother, Catherine de’ Medici, that these Huguenots posed a serious threat to them and that they should kill all the Huguenot leaders in one fell swoop Charles, already having a preconception that civil war was imminent, decided that this was a good way to get a free victory.

8.5.3. This massacre was the big bang that started the civil wars For three days after, Catholic mobs took to the streets and eliminated Huguenots in their bloodthirst Around three thousand huguenots were exterminated. This was the kick-off that started the French civil wars

8.6. ultra-Catholics "Holy League"

8.6.1. In 1576, the ultra-Catholics created a “Holy League” and appointed Henry, the duke of Guise, as the Catholic champion who would take the French throne in place of the ruling king, Henry III, who succeeded Charles IX

8.7. War of the Three Henrys

8.7.1. change in power dynamic, from Henry, duke of Guise, who was assassinated by Henry III to take back the power, who was then assassinated by a self-righteous monk, which led to Henry of Navarre receiving the power, as he was next in line for the throne With Henry’s (Navarre) conversion to Catholicism and his immediate coronation, the French Wars of Religion were over

8.8. Henry of Navarre (converted Protestant)

8.8.1. Under the pay of Phillip II of Spain, Henry duke of Guise seized Paris and forced King Henry III to make him chief minister by giving him power

8.8.2. In retaliation, Henry, duke of Guise, was assassinated by Henry III in order to take back power

8.8.3. Henry was then assassinated by a self-righteous monk, who was disgusted with how a Catholic head would work with a Protestant

8.8.4. led to Henry of Navarre receiving the power of the crown, as he was next in line for the throne This was when he converted so that he could be accepted as king by Catholic France

8.9. Edict of Nantes

8.9.1. Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) issued the Edict of Nantes because despite the religious wars being over, the problems still persisted

8.9.2. edict stated that Catholicism was the official religion of France but that Huguenots still had the right to worship in selected places in every district and allowed them to retain some towns for protection

9. Revolt in the Netherlands

9.1. Description of Netherlands

9.1.1. Political Consisted of 17 provinces (the modern Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) French and southern provinces were closely tied to france Ruler disconnected

9.1.2. Economic Situated at commercial crossroads of northwestern Europe Prosperous through commerce and textile industry

9.1.3. Religion Very religiously tolerant with people with a large variety of religious beliefs Calvinism, Anabaptism, Lutheranism, etc.

9.1.4. Societal Largely Germanic in culture Dutch in Language

9.2. Why the Dutch revolted

9.2.1. Nobles, towns, provinces were strongly opposed to the traditional privileges of the separate provinces. Their freedoms and privileges were threatened

9.2.2. Taxes used for Spanish interests

9.2.3. Tried to exterminate Calvinism

9.3. Actions of the Duke of Alva

9.3.1. Duke of Alva with his 10,000 veteran Spanish and Italian troops to crush the rebellion of Dutch.

9.3.2. Repressive policies were counterproductive as they led many merchants and commoners to join the rebellion.

9.4. Resistance movement of Williams of Orange

9.4.1. William of Orange lead the resistance

9.4.2. United 17 provinces in 1576

9.4.3. Created the Union of Utrecht to counter the Catholic Union of Arras which had accepted Spanish control

9.5. Efforts at Dutch unification, and end results

9.5.1. Duke of Parma used religious differences to succeed from the union, forming the Union of Arras

9.5.2. Protestant and Catholic unions Union of Arras (catholic) Union of Utrecht (protestant)

9.5.3. 7 northern provinces became Dutch Republic

9.5.4. 10 southern provinces remained part of the Spanish rule.

10. The England of Elizabeth

10.1. Elizabeth as a true "politique"

10.1.1. she had not wished for the country to be torn apart over religion her religious policy aimed for compromise and moderation

10.1.2. Elizabeth’s Act of Supremacy declared that Elizabeth was the only governor and spiritual leader in this realm different title than “supreme head of the church” as to not upset the Catholics or the radical Protestants

10.1.3. Elizabeth’s Act of Uniformity restored the church service of the Book of Common Prayer from the reign of Edward VI revisions as to not upset either Catholics or Protestants

10.1.4. These Acts all put forth moderation and compromise between Catholics and Protestants

10.2. Church from the Act of Uniformity

10.2.1. new Angelican Church as the Book of Common Prayer was restored

10.2.2. with a few revisions to make the Book of Common Prayer acceptable to Catholics

10.3. Catholics challenged her power

10.3.1. Catholics challenged Elizabeth’s power by devising multiple plots to kill Elizabeth replace her on the throne with Elizabeth's Catholic cousin, Mary

10.3.2. After a serious plot was played out Elizabeth got fed up with Mary’s involvement and beheaded Mary in order to end the threats to her power

10.4. Puritans challenged her power

10.4.1. The Puritans challenged Elizabeth because they wanted to defy her religious policy by removing all traces of Catholicism from the Church of England

10.5. Quotes from "Queen Elizabeth Addresses Parliament"

10.5.1. “There will never Queen sit in my seat with more zeal to my country, care for my subjects, and that will sooner and willingness venture her life for your good and safety, than myself.”

10.5.2. “There is no jewel, be it of never so rich a price, which I set before [your love].”

10.5.3. “I never was any greedy, scraping grasper, nor a strait, fast-holding Prince, nor yet a waster.”

10.5.4. “For it is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.”

10.6. 3 foreign policies of Elizabeth

10.6.1. unofficially encouraged English seamen to plunder Spanish ships and colonies

10.6.2. provided aid for French Huguenots and Dutch Calvinists to weaken France and Spain

10.6.3. Elizabeth feigned complete aloofness as to avoid possible war with any major power

10.6.4. The last straw for Spain was her involvement in the Netherlands.

10.7. Spanish Armada epic fail

10.7.1. Fleet was armed scarcely and did not have the resources that Phillip had planned to send

10.7.2. openness of the plan was good for England, as they had an early notice of the attack

10.7.3. The wind blew the Spanish ships northward

10.7.4. Obsolete technology: ranks of rowers prevented cannons from being mounted at the sides oar-powered vessels each had a ram at the prow. smash into enemy ships, and if that did not sink them, then they would launch a boarding action Better metallurgy on Englands side: English had shorter cannons with same range and power Specially designed naval gun carriages allowed guns to be pulled in and reloaded quickly inferior ammo: Spanish iron ore was inferior in quality to that found in England. For some of the large bore guns, money had been saved by using stone ammunition

10.7.5. Better technology: Powerful sailing galleons could have rows of cannons mounted along their sides

11. The 30 Years' War

11.1. Bohemian

11.1.1. combatants? Protestant Nobles of Bohemian estates King Ferdinand from Habsburg and the Catholics

11.1.2. Why were they fighting? Protestant Bohemian estates regretted their decision to accept Ferdinand as their king Ferdinand’s goal was to re-Catholicize Bohemia and strengthen his own power This made Bohemian princes unhappy

11.1.3. key events To declare their resistance, the Protestant nobles threw two Habsburg governors and a secretary out a window. The habsburg governors and secretary survived because they landed on a manure pile, breaking their fall Protestant rebellion took control of Bohemia, removed Ferdinand from the throne and elected the Protestant ruler of the Palatinate, Frederick V. Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor, refused his removal from the Bohemian throne, and took forces of his own and of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic league to battle Frederick and the Protestant nobles. Ferdinand won at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague

11.1.4. outcome Frederick exiled to United Provinces Protestant Nobles’ land confiscated Spanish took west part of Palatinate Maximilian of Bavaria took the rest of the territory Bohemia declared a possession of the Habsburg Empire Catholicism declared it the sole religion of Bohemia. Spanish renewed attack on Dutch

11.2. Danish

11.2.1. Combatants? King Christian IV of Denmark, a Luthern King Ferdinand from Habsburg and the Catholics

11.2.2. Why were they fighting? They were fighting because the Protestants were losing and King Christian IV felt that he needed to intervene for victory to be in sight for the Protestants King Christian IV wanted some Catholic territories in northern Germany to benefit from.

11.2.3. Key Events King Christian IV’s army consisted of soldiers from a newly created anti-Habsburg and anti-Catholic alliance with the United Provinces and England. Imperial forces’ new commander: Albrecht von Wallenstein Became the most wealthy landowner because of Ferdinand’s victory Defeated a Protestant army at Dessau Christian IV’s and his allies’ forces were defeated by an army of the Catholic league led by Wallenstein

11.2.4. outcome Danish supremacy in the Baltic came to an end Edict of Restitution issued in march by Emperor Ferdinand II that prohibited Calvinist worship Restored to the Catholic Church all property previously taken by Protestant princes/cities in the past 75 years The sudden power change to the Habsburg Emperor frightened many German Princes.

11.3. Swedish

11.3.1. Combatants? Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, also a devout Lutheran Habsburg commander Wallenstein, fighting for the Catholic side

11.3.2. Why were they fighting? Gustavus Adolphus felt that he needed to aid his fellow Protestants in Germany where they were being persecuted

11.3.3. Key Events Battle of Lützen where Swedish forces had a pyrrhic victory, drastically decreasing their effectiveness. Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle Wallenstein assassinated on the orders of emperor Ferdinand Imperial Army defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen and drove the Swedes out of southern Germany

11.3.4. outcome Germany = Catholic Peace between the German princes and King Ferdinand made. Agreeing to annul the Edict of Restitution Swedes wished to go back to war, French entered war directly, under the leadership of Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of King Louis XIII.

11.4. Franco-Swedish

11.4.1. Combatants? Protestant Swedes supported by Catholic French Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain

11.4.2. Why were they fighting? Religious issues losing significance Swedish still wanted to fight after their defeat during the Swedish phase of the war.

11.4.3. Key Events The Battle of Rocroi: French victory over Spanish military greatness French victories over imperialist-Bavarian armies in southern Germany.

11.4.4. outcome Enacted the Peace of Westphalia which officially ended the war in Germany in 1648 Religion and Politics now separate Political forces became more important as guiding factors Religious affairs became personal attachments and individual choice All German states were able to control their own religion War between France and Spain ended at the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe. France gained parts of Western Germany, part of Alsace, and the three cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun Sweden and German states of Brandenburg and Bavaria gained some territories in Germany Austrian Habsburgs lost their authority even though no land was lost or gained All of the states that were under Holy Roman Empire name were now independent, with each receiving the power of making their own foreign policy.

12. Why Luther Succeeded

12.1. An Overextended Empire (the Holy Roman Empire

12.1.1. Ruled by Charles V: Spain and its overseas possessions, The traditional Austrian Habsburg lands, Bohemia, Hungary, The Low Countries, Kingdom of Naples in southern Italy Charles had religious and political goals: Religious; keep unity of Catholic faith throughout Empire Political:Maintain control over the enormous empire

12.1.2. four problems in his empire The French Charles had a rivalry with the Valois king of France, Francis I Francis wanted the possessions of the Habsburg empire. Got into conflicts called the Habsburg-Valois Wars with Charles over disputed territories in caused Charles to have less focus dealing with Luther in Germany The papacy Charles expect papacy to cooperate, but: The Papal policy was guided by political considerations instead of religious considerations Pope Clement VII sided with the Charles’ rival, Francis I because he feared Charles’s power in Italy The Turks In the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks had overrun Constantinople and established control over much of the Balkans in southeastern Europe. The Ottoman Turks posed a major problem to Europe. Under their new leader, Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman armies had They were finally repulsed in Vienna. The people were relieved but still feared that there would be more to come Germany’s internal situation General condition Diet of Augsburg Schmalkaldic Wars Peace of Augsburg